Upon the restoration of the Constitution in the Ottoman State, on 23 July 1908, which guaranteed the freedoms of thought and associations, many non-governmental organisations were established. One of these was the
(Turkish Association). Founded to promote research into the language, literature, history and culture of the Turks and related fields, the Society also published a periodical under the same name. In addition to works of Turkish scholars, some of the best achievements of Hungarian Turcology were translated into Turkish and published in this journal. By doing so, both the Society and the journal considerably contributed to the emergence and flourishing of scientific and cultural co-operation between the two countries in the pre-World War I period.
The subject matter of this paper is the organisation, classification and inspection of religious foundations in the Ottoman State. First, an overview is given of some of the evkaf organisations in general, then the organisation of evkaf in the Ottoman State will be scrutinised in detail before and after the establishment of the Ministry of Foundations (a private ministry for evkaf administration) in 1242/1826. Finally, detailed information will be given about the types of foundations in the 19th century with a cursory glance at the republican period of Turkey.
The present article publishes text and translation of two firmans of Mustafa II, dated 1108 (1696), taken from copies in the cadi registers (sicill) of Thessaloniki, regulating the reform of the Ottoman state courier and post-station (ulak/menzilhane) network with regard to the Rumelian sol kol (Via Egnatia). The firman texts are desinged to be studies in conjuction with the commentary in the author's study of the Rumelian sol kol in E. Zachariadou, The Via Egnatia under Ottoman ule (1380-1699) (Rethymnon 1996), pp. 129-144.
The Ottoman state wanted to regain the territories of Belgrade, Temesvár, the western part of Wallachia and possibly Transylvania, lost as a consequence of the peace-treaty of Passarowitz in 1718. The realisation of this aim seemed feasible when Sultan Mahmud I was at war with the Russian and Habsburg empires in the late 1730s. The Ottomans recognised that they needed the co-operation of Hungarians and a legitimate pretender or at least somebody who could be used in the political game of chess. This role was assigned to József Rákóczi, son of the last prince of Transylvania, Ferenc II Rákóczi, with whom they concluded an agreement on January 20, 1738. Rákóczi made serious efforts to gain the diplomatic support of the European states. His attempt to return to Hungary failed and he died of plague on November 10, 1738.
The aim of this paper is to reveal the transformation of the Ottoman Empire following the debacles of the second siege of Vienna in 1683. The failures compelled the Ottoman state to change its socioeconomic and political structure. As a result of this transition of the state structure, which brought about a so-called “redistribution of power” in the empire, new Ottoman elites emerged from 1683 until the 1750s. We have divided the above time span into three stages that will greatly help us comprehend the Ottoman transition from sultanic authority to numerous autonomies of first Muslim, then non-Muslim elites of the Ottoman Empire. During the first period (1683 –1699) we see the emergence of Muslim power players at the expense of sultanic authority. In the second stage (1699–1730) we observe the sultans’ unsuccessful attempts to revive their authority. In the third period (1730–1750) we witness the emergence of non-Muslim notables who gradually came into power with the help of both the sultans and external powers. At the end of this last stage, not only did the authority of Ottoman sultans decrease enormously, but a new era evolved where Muslim and non-Muslim leading figures both fought and co-operated with one another for a new distribution of wealth in the Ottoman Empire.
Fleischer, C. H. (1986):
Bureaucrat and Intellectual in the Ottoman Empire. The Historian Mustafa Âli (1541–1600)
Fleet, K. (1999):
European and Islamic Trade in the Early OttomanState. The Merchants of Genoa