The surplus of the NPK balances of Hungarian agriculture, appearing in the nutrient balance sheet is a consequence of intensive fertilization in the past. Hungary had a positive P-balance between 1960 and 1990 for 30 years, and a positive NK-balance between 1970 and 1990 for 20 years during the 20th century.Studying the long-term effects of superphosphate in a field experiment on calcareous chernozem soil, it was found that the “half life time” of residual P was 5–7 years. The trial, i.e. the P after-effect lasted for 20 years.Liming and fertilization are the main soil fertility improving considerations for acidic sandy soils. These soils are often poor in all major nutrients. Mineral fertilizers, mainly NH4NO3, acidify soil, the pH values sink in comparison to the unfertilized plot. Liming and use of dolomite powder may counterbalance the acidification.