In this paper a DSC study is reported of the behavior of Fe40Ni40P14B6 alloy produced by rapid quenching. The experimental results show that relaxation phenomena can be studied directly from the
DSC curves. From these experiments, the spread of the Ec values in the literature is attributed to differences in the quenching rates and the presence of variable number of quenched-in
nuclei. It is also shown that the microstructure (number and size of crystals) of the non-isothermally devitrified metallic
alloy changes with the heating rate; this is a consequence of the shift of crystallization temperatures and, therefore, of
the change of the ratio of nucleation and crystal growth rates.
For two decades Hungary, like the other Eastern European countries, followed a general policy of establishing and strengthening the institutions of democracy, rule of law, and a market economy based on private property. However, since the elections of 2010, when Viktor Orbán’s Fidesz party came to power, Hungary has made a dramatic U-turn. This article investigates the different spheres of society: political institutions, the rule of law, and the influence of state and market on one another, as well as the world of ideology (education, science and art), and describes the U-turn’s implications for these fields and the effect it has on the life of people. It argues against the frequent misunderstandings in the interpretation and evaluation of the Hungarian situation, pointing out some typical intellectual fallacies. It draws attention to the dangers of strengthening nationalism, and to the ambivalence evident in Hungarian foreign policy, and looks into the relationship between Hungary and the Western world, particularly the European Union. Finally, it outlines the possible scenarios resulting from future developments in the Hungarian situation.
This paper develops a simple model that helps understand an important fact concerning cross-country pattern of growth and institutions shown by BenYishay and Betancourt (2010). They show that civil freedoms, especially one of their components called Autonomy and Individual Rights, are more important determinants of economic development than constraints on executives, a widely used measure in the literature on institutions and growth. The paper provides an interpretation of this fact through the lense of an argument that puts emphasis on three insights. The first is that civil freedoms can be seen as property rights broadly understood. The second is that with a higher scope of property rights enforced, the government must be able to commit to a lower level of expropriation of income. Third, institutions of freedom are sticky: they must be in line with the culture of the country so that they can be enforced with a reasonable cost. By addressing this specific question of constraints on executives versus civil freedoms the paper joins the literature which emphasizes the importance of culture in economic development.
Drawing on a unique farm level panel data set with 37,409 observations for period 2004–2005 and employing a matching estimator, this paper analyses how farm access to credit affects farm input allocation and farm efficiency in the CEE transition countries. We find that farms are asymmetrically credit constrained with respect to inputs. Farm use of variable inputs and capital investment increases up to 2.3% and 29%, respectively, per 1000 EUR of additional credit. Our estimates suggest also that farm access to credit increases the total factor productivity up to 1.9% per 1000 EUR of additional credit, indicating that an improved access to credit results in adjusting the relative input intensities on farms. This finding is further supported by a negative effect of better access to credit on labour, suggesting that these two are substitutes. Interestingly, farms are found not to be credit constrained with respect to land.
After the collapse of the Berlin Wall it was conceivable that China would follow the path towards the cessation of communism, as it happened in the successor states of the USSR, Yugoslavia and the East European satellite states of the Soviet Union. But the Communist Party of China (CPC) managed to retain control and avoided the Russian and East European collapse, a full-fledged transition to capitalism and liberal democracy. For a while, China was on its way to market capitalism with the possible outcome to turn eventually into a liberal democracy. This was a rocky road, with backs-and-forth. But the shift to liberal democracy did not happen. The massacre at Tiananmen Square in 1989, approved by Deng Xiaoping, was a more alarming setback than the contemporary Western observers were willing to realize. This paper presents an interpretation of the changes under present Chinese leader, Xi Jinping in a post-communist comparative perspective.
A recent international conference, entitled Transition in Perspective offered an opportunity for the author to take stock of the achievements of the post-socialist economies since the regime change in 1989/90. The analysis was carried out in two dimensions, in the political and the economic one. Regarding the first one, the record is largely positive: many countries have regained their independence, although in some cases the price was high and the fundamentals of democracy are still missing. In civil wars and inter-ethnic fights far too many people were killed and/or displaced. Since about 2000, many countries fell in the hand of autocratic leaders. In terms of catching-up with the income levels of the advanced economies, less than half of the countries were truly successful. The people have good reasons to be disappointed.
outer hair cells. However, on postnatal day 14 (P14), no Cx43 can be detected on the nerve endings, but the expression of Cx43 on SGNs persists until adulthood [ 8, 9 ]. The mammalian inner ear, an elegant and complex sensory organ consists of the