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the other indices (see text) Finally, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was also performed collecting together all the data of the four data sets. Then, the analyzed data matrix is constituted by 47 authors

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shells preparations. The chemical fingerprints of Moringa seed shells from various regions were established and investigated by similarity analysis (SA), principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA). The combination of

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Component Analysis (PCA) and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) are efficient towards sample clustering [ 36–41 ]. Hence, these tools were performed in this study to; (1) identify the compounds most important in distinguishing cannabis varieties, (2) find

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‘Egusi’ melon Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai is an important vegetable crop in Nigeria, grown for its edible seeds and oils. The diverse areas in which the crop is cultivated make it a rich source of genetic resources for the species. To explore its diversity, 50 accessions of ‘egusi’ melon were collected from different agro-ecological parts of Nigeria and were evaluated using 25 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. A total of 49 bands were scored, of which 42 were polymorphic, accounting for 93.60% of the polymorphic loci. The PIC value ranged from 0.36–0.80. UPGMA cluster analysis revealed five distinct groups for SSR. PCA analysis revealed the distinction of the accessions NG/OE/MAR/09/014, NG/TO/APR/09/027 and A8. Based on the results of this study, SSR markers appear to be particularly useful for the estimation of genetic similarity among diverse accessions of melon.

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Eight descriptive sensory textural attributes of whole date fruit were evaluated by twenty trained panel members and correlated with sixteen physicochemical properties. All sensory parameters, except gumminess, significantly correlated (Ps<0.05) with pectin, crude fibre, and moisture content. In addition, sensory hardness, cohesiveness, elasticity, and resilience correlated significantly with length of whole fruit (P<0.05), sensory adhesiveness with glucose content (P<0.05), sensory chewiness with mass of whole fruit (P<0.05), and sensory gumminess with fructose, glucose, and total sugar content (P<0.10). Sweetness, however, correlated only with moisture content (P<0.05). CA and the biplot (i.e. including all products, their sensory texture and physicochemical attributes) generated through PCA recognized three groups of dates as hard-chewy, soft-(medium-chewy), and soft-(non-adhesive).

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Component Analysis (PCA), which is primarily used as a dimensionality reduction tool. Reduction of data dimensionality allows detecting patterns and allows pattern visualisation retaining as much important information present in the original data as possible

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Quality of wheat grain is a complex trait that depends mostly on the quantity and quality of protein and unified interactions between high molecular glutenin, gliadin, low molecular glutenins and abiotic stresses. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of genotype, environment and genotype × environment interaction on quality and some agronomic traits in wheat. Twenty divergent genotypes of winter wheat, per five from Serbia, Russia, France and Hungary were analysed in this paper. Variability was observed for quality (grain protein content and sedimentation) and agronomic traits (thousand-grain weight and test weight) in three growing seasons (2007/08, 2008/09 and 2009/10). Genotypes were statistically analysed [basic statistical parameters, AMMI biplot for the content of protein, correlation and Principal Component Analysis (PCA)] in order to assess the impact of different growing seasons on selected cultivars. AMMI analysis determined that 2008/09 was very significant for most of the genotypes. The Hungarian cultivar GK-Zugoly had the highest grain protein content (14.4%). Correlation analysis showed different relationships between the traits. PCA indicated that the total variation reflected the first two components represented with 80%, but the first principal component was more important. Results of this paper indicate that the varieties MV-Csardas and Pamyati Kalinenko can be used as a good source of genetic material for future breeding program for agro-ecological conditions of Vojvodina.

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Aroma is one of the first sensorial characteristics affecting the perception of quality of salted dried codfish. In this work, the volatile profile of different commercially available salted dried codfishes was characterized by HS-SPME/GC-IT-MS. Samples of three species (Gadus morhua, Gadus macrocephalus and Theragra calchogramma), subjected to two curing processes (Traditional and Yellow curing) for different durations caught in distinct pools, were studied.Thirty compounds were fully characterized and 25 were tentatively identified and comprising several chemical classes (amines, hydrocarbons, esters, chlorinated compounds, aldehydes, aromatic, alcohols, acids, sulphur compounds, ethers, ketones and terpenes), with 26 of them being reported for the first time in codfish. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed major differences for the yellow cured sample and for T. chalcogramma species. Yellow cured codfish presented a higher content of compounds of almost all classes. T. chalcogramma exhibited a high content of terpenes and a low amount of aldehydes.

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The present study deals with the floristical composition of date palm orchards in Central Saudi Arabia (Al-Qassim Area). Fifty-five species of vascular plants were recorded, including 29 perennials and 26 annuals. Fifteen date palm orchards (stands) in each of five studied locations were investigated. Fifteen soil parameters were used to assess the relationship between species distribution and their controlling soil factors. Three main vegetation groups (A, B and C) were identified, and their characteristic species were recognised. These groups were separated along the first two axes of the principal component analysis (PCA). None of the measured soil variables showed significant difference between the identified vegetation groups. The first RDA axis can be defined as coarse sand-silt gradient, while the second axis, can be defined as potassium-coarse-sand gradient.

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Anthocyanin composition and profile were analysed in skin extracts from red grapes and wines of the autochthonous Croatian cultivars of Babić and Plavac mali by HPLC-DAD-MS method. Higher relative abundance of malvidin-3-monoglucoside and lower relative abundance of peonidin-3-monoglucoside and cyanidin-3-monoglucoside were identified in wine in relation to their earlier abundance in grapes. Using principal component analysis (PCA), the wine samples showed differences between wine types, although the grape samples did not show any considerable differences concerning the anthocyanin composition. The main differences between Babić and Plavac mali wines were detected in a monoglucoside acetate (malvidin-3-monoglucoside acetate), a monoglucoside-caffeoate (malvidin-3-monoglucoside caffeoate) and a group of monoglucosides (malvidin-3-monoglucoside, delphinidin-3-monoglucoside, petunidin-3-monoglucoside and peonidin-3-monoglucoside).

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