Authors:Hanan M. Al-Yousef, Tawfeq A. Alhowiriny, Nasir A. Siddiqui, Perwez Alam, Wafaa Hassan Badr Hassan, and Musarat Amina
The aim of this study was to develop a validated high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) procedure for resolution of chemical constituents and identification and quantification of two selected natural anticancer compounds, stigmasterol (PD-1) and cinnamic acid (PD-2), in Pluchea dioscoridis chloroform fraction (PDCF). The chromatographic estimations were conducted on normal HPTLC (20 cm × 10 cm glass-backed silica gel 60 F254) plates with chloroform-methanol-acetic acid (93:5:2, V/V) used as the mobile phase. para-Anisaldehyde was used for the derivatization of the developed plate, and compact spots were scanned at λmax = 513 nm. A well resolved, compact, and intense peaks of PD-1 and PD-2 were recorded at RF = 0.57 and 0.19, respectively. The proposed analytical method for both biomarker compounds was found to be handy, simple, precise, linear (%RSD = 1.03–1.45), accurate (98.91–99.14%), reliable, and sensitive for the analysis of both bio-markers. The LOD/LOQ (ng) for PD-1 and PD-2 were recorded as 38.73/117.37 and 42.58/129.04, respectively, in the linearity range of 200–1400 ng per spot. The obtained result showed maximum quantities of PD-1 and PD-2 (5.36 and 16.98 μg mg−1, respectively). The developed HPTLC was found to be suitable for the routine analysis of these 2 biomarkers in the chloroform fraction of Pluchea dioscoridis and can be further employed in the process quality control of herbal formulations containing the said biomarkers.
Authors:José Hidalgo, Antonio Pineda, Rick Arancon, Radek Černý, Maria Climent, Antonio Romero, and Rafael Luque
SBA-15 materials exhibit important properties including large surface area, highly ordered mesopores, and high stability in a variety of catalytic reactions. In this study, Al and Zr-loaded SBA-15 materials (Si/Zr = 30, Si/Al = 30), 50 molar ratio with Pd (1, 2, and 4% (w/w)) and Pt (0.5 and 1% (w/w)) were tested in the isomerization of C5–C7 linear alkanes. These solids were characterized using thermal gravimetric analysis–differential thermal analysis (TGA–DTA), nitrogen physisorption, and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). Interestingly, the low porosity SBA-15 materials loaded with 2% (w/w) Pd were most active catalysts for n-heptane isomerization. The mechanochemical addition of tungsten also resulted in the increase of catalytic activity for the reaction. The results herein demonstrate the possibilities of SBA-15 catalysts as a commercial catalyst alternative in the catalytic isomerization of hydrocarbons.
HALLE-WITTENBERG, HALLE(SAALE), GERMANY Received: 13 June, 2001; accepted: 6 August, 2001 Field experiments were conducted at a high latitude site for sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) production in central Germany (51 o 24' N, 11 o 53' E) in 1996, 1997 and 1998. The responses of sunflower development to various planting patterns differed in the duration from emergence to the middle of the linear growth period as calculated via a tangent hyperbolic model F(t)=(. +ß)×tanh[. ×(t–.)]. Final dry matter accumulation showed few differences among the planting patterns: 12 plants m –2 at 50 cm row spacing at 75 cm row spacing (RS2PD2) and 4 plants m –2 at 100 cm row spacing (RS3PD1). The actual and simulated values for final dry matter were close to 1200 g m –2 . The responses of soil moisture and temperature to planting patterns changed from the upper to the deep soil layers. In a normal year, e.g. 1997, the soil water to 150 cm depth was sufficient for sunflower growth. In a drought year, e.g. 1998, soil water deeper than 150 cm was used by sunflower crops. The soil temperature was mostly lower in RS1PD3 and RS2PD2 than in RS3PD1, particularly in the upper soil, at depths of 5 and 20 cm. The most important factor defining the responses of soil moisture and temperature to planting patterns seems to be the amount of radiation penetrating the ground, which may depend on latitude, wind and row orientation.
Authors:Zoltán Szekanecz, Izabella Gomez, Boglárka Soós, Levente Bodoki, Szilvia Szamosi, Csilla András, Balázs Juhász, László Váróczy, Péter Antal-Szalmás, Péter Szodoray, Nóra Bittner, Péter Árkosy, Árpád Illés, Gabriella Szűcs, Katalin Dankó, Tamás Bender, László Tamási, and Éva Szekanecz
of PD-1 and PD-L1. [A PD-1 és a PD-L1 immunológiai és immunoonkológiai szerepe.]
Immunol Szle. 2017; 9: 23–27. [Hungarian]