is not restricted by the phase impenetrability condition (PIC). To explain how case features assigned to silent copies end up determining word forms for moved copies that must have left their positions without case features, I posit a version of chain
The heterogeneity among ten most widely grown old, recently released varieties and landraces of Syrian durum wheat was studied using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. The 11 primer combinations used in this study amplified 533 scorable AFLP loci of which 141 (26.5%) were polymorphic. The values of average polymorphic information content (PIC) for these markers were estimated to be 0.34. The dissimilarity
values ranged from 0.120 to 0.729 with an average 0.421. The PCA analysis with the entire AFLP data separated the landraces from the durum wheat cultivars. The low PIC and dissimilarity values among modern varieties might be attributed to the rigorous selection pressure aimed at cultivar purity and associated breeding practices. It is included that AFLP markers can be used for detecting polymorphism leading to genotype identification and for estimating genetic diversity.
Genetic diversity of 74 T. urartu genotypes was studied using 11 SSR (simple sequence repeats) markers. The number of alleles ranged from 4 to 15, with an average of 8 alleles per primer. The mean values for the expected heterozygosity (He) and polymorphism information content (PIC) over all loci and populations were 0.56 and 0.52, respectively. From a geographic viewpoint the higher diversities were observed in Jordan, followed by Syria and Turkey. Diversity revealed within countries was higher than among them, even in the same regions of the relevant countries. The analysis of molecular variance revealed that most of the genetic variability was accounted for by differences within populations (90%), with less variability among them (10%). The dendrogram generated based on Nei’s dissimilarity matrix revealed three main clusters for which the grouping patterns were not clearly associated with the geographic origins, indicating the gene flow among different countries. Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) confirmed subgrouping obtained by cluster analysis. In general, genetic distances between geographic regions were low or moderate, which was also supported by low values of pairwise Fst. Our findings can direct the sampling strategies on T. urartu in studied regions to find beneficial alleles. The heterotic groups detected by cluster and PCoA analysis in the present study can serve as effective candidates in crossing programs to broaden the genetic base in T. urartu.
from each individual concentration–response curves. Maximal responses (E max ) and pIC 50 (−log IC 50 ) values for curves [(i) between control at 37 °C and during hypothermia and (ii) during hypothermia in the absence and presence of L-NAME] were
Authors:F. Pontes, S. Oliveira, J. Espínola, L. Arakaki, M. Fonseca, and C. Airoldi
Solid adducts SbX3L-pic (X=Cl, I and L=α-, β- and γ-picolines) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, 1H and 13C NMR, IR spectroscopy and thermal analysis. The infrared spectroscopy and the magnetic resonance for 1H and 13C nuclei of these compounds suggest that the ligands coordinate through nitrogen atom. Kinetic studies were accomplished by
means of thermogravimetric data, through isothermal and non-isothermal techniques. The best adjusting models for adducts thermal
decomposition were R1 for isothermal and R1 and R2 for the non-isothermal methods. The energy of activation values obtained by isothermal method indicate the following orders
of thermal stability for adducts: i) SbCl3α-pic>SbCl3β-pic>SbCl3γ-pic and ii) SbI3β-pic>SbI3γ-pic>SbI3α-pic. The activation energy values obtained by non-isothermal were higher than those from isothermal methods, showing the
order of stability:iii) SbCl3α-pic<SbCl3β-pic<SbCl3γ-pic and iv) SbI3β-pic>SbI3α-pic=SbI3γ-pic. These obtained data through R1 model presented the kinetic compensation effect for trichloride adducts, which could be associated to both isothermal and
Authors:Patricia Patricio, José Artur Paiva, and Luís Miguel Borrego
response begins. Following this response, critically ill patients can return to homeostasis and have an immune resolution and recovery, or develop persistent inflammation-immunsupression and catabolism syndrome (PICS), resulting in persistent inflammation
Authors:KE Nurullahoğlu-Atalık, S Kutlu, H Solak, and R Özen Koca
−6 M). The concentrations of atorvastatin causing 50% of the maximal response (IC 50 ) were calculated from each individual concentration–response curves. pIC 50 (−log IC 50 ) values for atorvastatin (control and cilostazol-pretreated) curves
The new zinc ternary complexes [Zn(cyclen)NO3]ClO4 (I), [Zn2(cyclen)2(m-nic)](ClO4)3 (II), [Zn2(cyclen)2(m-pic)](ClO4)3 (III) (cyclen=1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane; nic=nicotinic acid; pic=picolinic acid) were synthesized and their spectral and thermal properties were investigated. The compounds were characterized
by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy and TG/DTG, DTA methods. Moreover, the way of coordination of pyridinecarboxylate anions
was proposed on the basis of the spectral data and consequently proved with results of X-ray structure analysis.
1,10-phenanthroline (phen), 2,2′-bipyridyl (bipy), pyridine (py) and 4-picoline (4-pic) complexes of dibutyltindichloride (Bu2SnCl2) and dimethyltindichloride (Me2SnCl2) were synthesized. The complexes were characterized with the help of elemental analyses, IR spectra and thermal analyses. The complexes were found to have the compositions [Bu2SnCl2·phen], [Bu2SnCl2·bipy], [Me2SnCl2·phen], [Me2SnCl2·bipy], [Me2SnCl2·2py] and [Me2SnCl2·2(4-pic)]·H2O. All these complex compounds appeared to posses octahedral structures. Thermodynamic parameters, such as activation energyEa* enthalpy change ΔH and entropy change ΔS, for the dehydration and sublimation of the complexes were evaluated using some standard methods.
Thermogravimetry (TG), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and other analytical methods have been applied to the investigation
of the thermal behaviour and structure of the complexes Mg(pc)(na)3⋅3H2O (I), Mg(pc)(py)2⋅2H2O (II),Mg(pc)(pic)2⋅2H2O (III) and Mg(pc)(caf)2⋅4H2O (IV), where pc=2,6- pyridinedicarboxylate, na=nicotinamide,py=pyridine, pic=γ-picoline and caf=caffeine. The thermal decomposition of these compounds is multi-stage processes. The chemical composition of the complexes,
the solid intermediates and the resultant products of thermolysis have been identified by means of elemental analysis and
complexometric titration. Schemes of destruction of these complexes are suggested. Heating of these compounds first resulted
in a release of water molecules. In complexes I, II and IV the loss of the molecular ligands (na, py and caf) occur (on the
TG curves) in one step (-2na, -2py and -2caf) and in complex III in two steps (-pic, -pic). The final product of the thermal
decomposition was MgO. The thermalstability of the complexes can be ordered in the sequence: IV<I<III<II. Nicotinamide, pyridine,
γ-picoline and caffeine were co-ordinated to Mg(II) through the N atom of the respective heterocyclic ring. IR data suggested
a unidentate co-ordination of carboxylates to Mg(II) in complexes I–IV.