Authors:S. Abdul Sattar, B. Seetharami Reddy, V. Koteswara Rao, A. Pradeep, G. Naga Raju, K. Ramanarayana, P. Madhusudana Rao, and S. Bhuloka Reddy
Trace elemental analysis was carried out in various parts of 10 anti-epileptic medicinal plants using PIXE technique. A 3 MeV
proton beam was used to excite the samples and spectra were recorded using a Si(Li) detector. Data analysis was done using
Gupix Software. The elements Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br and Sr were identified and their concentrations estimated.
The presence of some of these trace elements is correlated with the anti-epileptic curative property of these plants.
Authors:K. Won-in, Y. Thongkam, T. Kamwanna, and P. Dararutana
It was proved that non-destructive and non-sampling methods were used to analyze the composition of the archaeological glasses.
Glass has been used in ornaments and decoration in Thailand for thousands of years. In this study, glass bead fragments found
from the archaeological site at Khao Sam Kaeo, Chumphon Province, southern Thailand were analyzed by the proton induced X-ray
emission spectroscopy (PIXE) and scanning electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy
(SEM–EDS). The composition analysis showed that copper was mainly presence as the colorant. Titanium, common impurity in sand,
was all present in the glass bead samples. Furthermore, this type of glass almost spread over the various sites in this region
that demonstrated the long distance or exchange connections. Finally, PIXE and SEM–EDS have been used to be the efficient
techniques to analyze the archaeological objects, especially the glassy materials, to understand their characteristics and
how they were produced in ancient times.
Authors:S. Almeida, A. Silva, M. Freitas, A. Marques, C. Ramos, A. Silva, and T. Pinheiro
The growing concern about air quality in harbours is a result of the high impact of the operations on human health and environment.
Harbour activities such loading, unloading and transport of dusty materials are important emission sources of Atmospheric
particulate matter (APM). The assessment of these fugitive emissions is a difficult task because they depend on the materials,
the type of operation and the meteorological scenarios. The main objectives of this work were (1) to evaluate if the techniques
k0-based Instrumental neutron activation analysis (k0-INAA) and Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) are suitable techniques to assess fugitive emissions in harbours and (2)
to estimate the impact of harbour activities on APM levels and composition. Several experimental campaigns were carried out
in a Portuguese harbour, during unloading operations of fertilizer and phosphorite provided from Syria and Morocco. PM2.5 and PM2.5–10 were collected, in polycarbonate filters, by Gent samplers. The techniques k0-INAA and PIXE were applied as sensitive analytical tools to perform a complete chemical characterization of the collected
samples. Results showed that manipulation of these materials during harbour operations resulted in high emissions of particles,
principally from the coarse fraction. These emissions were very affected by the granulometry and nature of the handled materials.
Fertilizer emissions were characterized by high concentration of Ca, P, K, Cr, Br and Zn, whereas phosphorite handling contributed
principally for the increase of Ca, P and Cr levels.
Authors:Gyula Szöőr, Péter Rózsa, Bart Vekemans, László Vincze, Freddy Adams, Imre Uzonyi, Árpád Z. Kiss, and Imre Beszeda
Impact material, especially magnetizable tiny grains (spherules, globules and platelets) of Barringer Meteor Crater (Arizona) was studied by combined nuclear analytical techniques. The samples were analyzed first by micro-proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and deuteron-induced gamma-ray emission (DIGE) methods. In this way it was possible to determine the distribution of elements down to carbon. Using micro-synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence technique (SRXRF) we could determine medium and high atomic number trace elements such as the platinum-group metals. Our methodological developments made it possible for the first time to carry out quantitative analysis for more than 40 elements, providing new perspectives for the interpretation of the impact materials. Various compositions of the findings around the Barringer Crater were compared to analytical data of similar objects found in Carpathian Basin to elucidate their origin. This paper summarizes the more important results obtained by using ion beam microanalytical techniques.
Authors:S. Almeida, C. Ramos, A. Marques, A. Silva, M. Freitas, M. Farinha, M. Reis, and A. Marques
The objective of this paper was to assess the air pollution and the main sources of Air Particulate Matter in the Setúbal
urban/industrial area, Portugal. PM2.5 and PM2.5–10 were sampled in Nuclepore filters and lichens transplants were exposed during 9 months. The levels of elements in these two
matrixes were measured by INAA and PIXE. A large data base was created and source apportionment was performed by using Principal
Component Analysis. The results showed that the main sources of fine particles were anthropogenic and were related with traffic
and local industry. There was an important contribution of natural sources, mainly for the coarse fraction, associated with
the sea and the soil. Lichens characterization and mapping showed that different site-specific characteristics controlled
the spatial distribution of different elements. This study showed that biomonitoring is an effective complementary method
to traditional sampling systems.
Authors:E. Bakraji, M. Ahmad, N. Salman, D. Haloum, N. Boutros, and R. Abboud
Thermoluminescence (TL) dating and Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) techniques have been utilized for the study of archaeological
pottery fragment samples from Tell Saka Site, which is located at 25 km south east of Damascus city, Syria. Four samples were
chosen randomly from the site, two from third level and two from fourth level for dating using TL technique and the results
were in good agreement with the date assigned by archaeologists. Twenty-eight sherds were analyzed using PIXE technique in
order to identify and characterize the elemental composition of pottery excavated from third and fourth levels, using 3 MV
tandem accelerator in Damascus. The analysis provided almost 20 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni,
Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb). However, only 14 elements as follows: K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb were
chosen for statistical analysis and have been processed using two multivariate statistical methods, Cluster and Factor analysis.
The studied pottery were classify into two well defined groups.
Authors:K. Won-in, S. Suksawang, C. Thongleurm, S. Intarasiri, U. Tippawan, T. Kamwanna, and P. Dararutana
Phra Somdej Wat Rakhang amulets which were one of the most famous Thai amulets created in an image of Lord Buddha meditation.
They were made to explain the Dharma of Buddha and to bless every life in this world for good karma. Their compositions contained
with both inorganic and organic materials such as shell lime, assorted flowers, ashes from incense urns, etc. Various molds
were differed both types and compositions. In this work, it was the first time on advanced structural analysis using non-destructive
x-ray fluorescence spectrometry methods; particle induced x-ray emission. Samples were selected by various molds to analyze
theirs composition. Results revealed the presence of Ca, Al, K, Si and others such as Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn. It was also found
that there were differences in concentration of composition. It can be concluded that their matrices were heterogeneous. Each
mold may be characterized using the differences in its composition.
Two different modes of sample excitation have been used for elemental analysis of thin standard reference materials and of chemical standards with known composition. PIXE /2.5 MeV protons/ and XRF induced by PIXE, will be called XRF-PIXE /2.5 MeV protons on Mo primary target/. The same samples were alternatively exposed to protons and X-ray beams. The sensitivities under standard running conditions are determined for both an XRF-PIXE and a PIXE analysis system. It is shown that the sensitivity of the PIXE spectrometer depends strongly on the sample matrix, whereas the XRF-PIXE sensitivity is rather constant with respect to different kinds of samples. In addition, the advantages of one mode of excitation on the other are discussed. It is shown that XRF-PIXE can be a useful complement to PIXE analysis.
A total of 178 aerosol samples in two size fractions, PM10-2.5 (coarse) and PM2.5 (fine), were collected on nucleopore films
using a Gent stacked filter unit sampler at the Graduate School of China Nuclear Industrial Group during May 2007 to November
of 2009. Black carbon was determined by a reflectometer. A total of 16 elements, Mg, Al, S, Si, P, Cl, Ca, K, Ti, Mn, Fe,
Ni, Cu, Zn, As and Pb, were determined by Particle Induced X-ray Emission. Mg, Al, Ca, K and Mn were also determined by Neutron
Activation Analysis. Concentrations of all these elements were used to identify possible pollution sources and directions
of the airborne particulate matter by means of softwares PMF and CPF. Some extraordinary events, such as sandstorms, firework
and transboundary fire smoke were pinpointed by a combination of time series of multielement, relevant meteorological data
and softwares Wind rose, Hysplit, and Google earth.