Authors:Akram Waheed, Yuanxun Zhang, Liangman Bao, Qingchen Cao, Guilin Zhang, Yan Li, and Xiaolin Li
This study is a one-year monitoring of the inhalable particulate matter (PM10) of Shanghai (from January 2006 to December
2006) to study PM10 pollution. Proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) was used to investigate the chemical elements in Shanghai
PM10. The study finds seasonal variation in both mass concentration and of chemical elements in PM10. The results of the enrichment
factor show that the chemical elements in the inhalable particles could be divided into two categories, soil elements from
earth crust and anthropogenic pollution elements. The high enrichment factors suggest that anthropogenic activities were the
dominant source for elements such as S, Cu, Cl, Zn, Pb and Br. Strong correlation of K, Ca, Fe and Ti, from factor analysis,
indicates these elements coming from earth crust or soil, S, Zn and Pb from industrial pollution and/or traffic and Cl from
Authors:Weisheng Yue, Xiaolin Li, Jiangfeng Liu, Yulan Li, Guilin Zhang, and Yan Li
Adverse health effects of occupational exposures to metal-containing airborne particles have long been recognized. To reduce
the adverse effects caused by metal-containing particles, it is important to make clear where they are from. SPM has been
applied to the study of the sources of chromium, manganese, nickel and zinc in aerosol particles PM10. Micro-PIXE spectra of single particles were treated as fingerprints since each particle was characterized by its micro-PIXE
spectrum. The sources of the metal-containing particles were identified using the fingerprints of single particles. The study
shows that the major sources of the four kinds of metals in the air are metallurgic emission, vehicle exhaust, coal combustion
and soil dust.
Authors:Y. Song, D. D. Xu, Z. F. Chai, H. Ouyang, W. Y. Feng, and X. Y. Mao
PM10 and PM2.5 samples were collected simultaneously in Beijing, China, and analyzed by INAA and ICP-MS. Seasonal variations of the concentrations
of ambient particles and their elemental compositions were found. The main sources of PM10 and PM2.5 in spring were the crust, coal burning and vehicle exhaust, in which the former was significant. During a strong dust storm,
the concentrations of the crustal elements in PM10 and PM2.5 increased remarkably, but the concentrations of some anthropogenic elements decreased. The enrichment factors of these anthropogenic
elements also decreased sharply during the dust storm, which indicated that they were mostly originated from local anthropogenic
pollution and diluted by the huge amount of dust.
Authors:Diandou Xu, Mo Dan, Yan Song, Zhifang Chai, and Guoshun Zhuang
PM2.5 and PM10 samples were simultaneously collected monthly at a downtown site in Beijing from May 2002 to April 2003 and analyzed by instrumental
neutron activation analysis (INAA) combined with organic solvent extraction method for the concentrations and distributions
of extractable organohalogens (EOX), including extractable organochlorinated (EOCl), organobrominated (EOBr) and organoiodinated
compounds (EOI). The concentrations of EOCl, EOBr and EOI were 10.5–79.2 ng/m3, ND-8.2 ng/m3 and 1.6–8.2 ng/m3 in PM2.5, respectively, and 37.0–73.3 ng/m3, 1.6–12.8 ng/m3 and 1.6–8.5 ng/m3 in PM10, respectively, which were increasing in the order of EOCl≫EOBr∼EOI. EOCl accounted for 73–88% and 69–91% of EOX in PM2.5 and PM10, respectively, which showed that EOCl was the major component of the organohalogens. There was a significant difference of
EOCl concentrations in PM2.5 and PM10 in different seasons, which suggested that the concentrations of EOCl in the atmosphere were significantly affected by the
meteorologic conditions and anthropogenic activities.
Authors:Yong-Sam Chung, Sun-Ha Kim, Moon Jong-Hwa, Young-Jin Kim, Jong-Myoung Lim, and Jin-Hong Lee
As part of an air pollution monitoring study, airborne particulate matter (PM2/PM10-2) samples were collected from 2000 to 2003 at two sampling sites in an urban region, Daejeon, the middle of Korea. Mass concentrations
of both fine and coarse fractions and that of the black carbon in the fine particles were measured using the Gent stacked
filter unit sampler and the smoke stain reflectometer, respectively. In the collected samples the concentrations of 24 elements
were analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis. Monitored data were investigated for their temporal trends under
different environmental conditions and their seasonal correlation patterns. Crustal enrichment factors were also estimated
to establish the contribution between anthropogenic and crustal origin. Patterns for airborne particle matter (APM) and elemental
concentrations, seasonal variation of some marker elements were investigated. The results can be applied for the investigation
of further air pollution sources and for the evaluation of air quality.
Authors:Yong-Sam Chung, Sun-Ha Kim, Jong-Hwa Moon, Young-Jin Kim, Jong-Myoung Lim, and Jin-Hong Lee
For the identification of air pollution sources, about 500 airborne particulate matter (PM2.5and PM10) samples were collected by using a Gent air sampler and a polycarbonate filter in an urban region in the middle of Korea
from 2000 to 2003. The concentrations of 25 elements in the samples were measured by using instrumental neutron activation
analysis (INAA). Receptor modeling was performed on the air monitoring data by using the positive matrix factorization (PMF2)
method. According to this analysis, the existence of 6 to 10PMF factors, such as metal-alloy, oil combustion, diesel exhaust,
coal combustion, gasoline exhaust, incinerator, Cu-smelter, biomass burning, sea-salt, and soil dust were identified.
Authors:N. Canha, M. Freitas, M. Almeida-Silva, S. Almeida, H. Dung, I. Dionísio, J. Cardoso, C. Pio, A. Caseiro, T. Verburg, and H. Wolterbeek
One Plus Sequential Air Sampler—Partisol was placed in a small village (Foros de Arrão) in central Portugal to collect PM10 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter below 10 μm), during the winter period for 3 months (December 2009–March 2010). Particles
masses were gravimetrically determined and the filters were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis to assess
their chemical composition. The water-soluble ion compositions of the collected particles were determined by Ion-exchange
Chromatography. Principal component analysis was applied to the data set of chemical elements and soluble ions to assess the
main sources of the air pollutants. The use of both analytical techniques provided information about elemental solubility,
such as for potassium, which was important to differentiate sources.
Authors:R. Jasan, R. Plá, R. Invernizzi, and M. Dos Santos
PM10 and PM2.5 samples were taken using a Gent sampler to characterize the atmospheric aerosol of Buenos Aires metropolitan
area. A total of 114 samples were collected from October 2005 to October 2006 at one urban site, every third day, for 24 h.
Samples were analyzed by neutron activation, and black carbon and mass concentration were determined. In both fractions, elemental
and gravimetric mass concentrations were compared with historical data. Enrichment factors, backward trajectories and factor
analysis were calculated. The attribution of pollution sources is discussed.
Authors:Yong-Sam Chung, Jong-Hwa Moon, Kwang-Won Park, Sun-Ha Kim, Jin-Hong Lee, and Kil-Yong Lee
Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used for the analysis of 25 trace elements in airborne particulate matter (PM) for air pollution monitoring. For the collection of air samples, the Gent stacked filter unit low volume sampler and two types of Nuclepore polycarbonate filters were employed. Samples were collected at selected sampling dates in suburban and industrial regions of Daejon city in the Republic of Korea. Mass concentrations and black carbon of PM were measured, and enrichment factors were calculated. The results were used to describe the emission sources and their correlation patterns.