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Abstract  

Aerosol chemical composition data for PM2.5 and PM2.5–10 was acquired, in two sampling stations, at an industrialized area located in Sado Estuary. Two methods were used to have an insight on the origin of the particles: the comparison between the measurements obtained in the two sampling stations and the association between the wind direction and the element concentrations. Results showed that Ce, Fe, La, Sc, Sm, Na, Co and Se were associated with non-local sources whereas As, K, Sb, Zn, Hg, Br, Cr, Hf and U had a local origin.

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Abstract  

Summertime urban PM2.5 was collected on cellulose filters in downtown Toronto, using a customized air sampler (635 l/min). Mass concentrations for up to 19 trace elements/ions were measured by ICP-AES, INAA and IC. Source apportionment was performed on these results including additional carbon and total mass concentrations using positive matrix factorization (PMF). PMF factors exhibited trends that indicated soil (18%), stationary (19%), secondary (48%), and vehicle (15%) sources. Potential source contribution function (PSCF) analysis identified probable sources of the stationary and secondary PM2.5 as originating from the south and southwest of Toronto.

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Abstract  

Airborne particulate matter (APM) was collected in coarse fraction and in PM2.5 during spring of 2002 in Beijing suburban sampling site by Gent SFU sampler. More attention has been paid to the special “events” such as dust, storm and haze. Taking advantage of the combination of thermal or epithermal neutron irradiation with Compton suppression spectrometer system, twenty elemental (Al, Si, Ca, K, Dy, Cu, I, In, Ba, W, Sn, Sb, As, Ti, Br, V, Mn, Cl, Na, Zn) concentration were determined. Among them, several key trace elements that cannot be accomplished by the traditional neutron activation analysis (NAA) were determined. The analysis of trace elemental concentration in PM2.5 shows that the anthropogenic elements such as As, In, Sn, Sb have different trends than crustal elements. The back-trajectories of the high concentration anthropogenic pollution elements revealed their source region. Six potential sources were resolved by positive matrix factorization (PMF), two area type and four source type, as soil, limestone quarry, crop burning and mixture of residue motor and coal burning sampling sites. Taking into account of everyday air particle back trajectories, source compositions together with source regions were also identified.

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Summary  

PM10 and PM2.5 samples were collected simultaneously in Beijing, China, and analyzed by INAA and ICP-MS. Seasonal variations of the concentrations of ambient particles and their elemental compositions were found. The main sources of PM10 and PM2.5 in spring were the crust, coal burning and vehicle exhaust, in which the former was significant. During a strong dust storm, the concentrations of the crustal elements in PM10 and PM2.5 increased remarkably, but the concentrations of some anthropogenic elements decreased. The enrichment factors of these anthropogenic elements also decreased sharply during the dust storm, which indicated that they were mostly originated from local anthropogenic pollution and diluted by the huge amount of dust.

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Abstract  

PM2.5 and PM10 samples were simultaneously collected monthly at a downtown site in Beijing from May 2002 to April 2003 and analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) combined with organic solvent extraction method for the concentrations and distributions of extractable organohalogens (EOX), including extractable organochlorinated (EOCl), organobrominated (EOBr) and organoiodinated compounds (EOI). The concentrations of EOCl, EOBr and EOI were 10.5–79.2 ng/m3, ND-8.2 ng/m3 and 1.6–8.2 ng/m3 in PM2.5, respectively, and 37.0–73.3 ng/m3, 1.6–12.8 ng/m3 and 1.6–8.5 ng/m3 in PM10, respectively, which were increasing in the order of EOCl≫EOBr∼EOI. EOCl accounted for 73–88% and 69–91% of EOX in PM2.5 and PM10, respectively, which showed that EOCl was the major component of the organohalogens. There was a significant difference of EOCl concentrations in PM2.5 and PM10 in different seasons, which suggested that the concentrations of EOCl in the atmosphere were significantly affected by the meteorologic conditions and anthropogenic activities.

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Summary  

For the identification of air pollution sources, about 500 airborne particulate matter (PM2.5and PM10) samples were collected by using a Gent air sampler and a polycarbonate filter in an urban region in the middle of Korea from 2000 to 2003. The concentrations of 25 elements in the samples were measured by using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Receptor modeling was performed on the air monitoring data by using the positive matrix factorization (PMF2) method. According to this analysis, the existence of 6 to 10PMF factors, such as metal-alloy, oil combustion, diesel exhaust, coal combustion, gasoline exhaust, incinerator, Cu-smelter, biomass burning, sea-salt, and soil dust were identified.

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Abstract  

Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used for the analysis of 25 trace elements in airborne particulate matter (PM) for air pollution monitoring. For the collection of air samples, the Gent stacked filter unit low volume sampler and two types of Nuclepore polycarbonate filters were employed. Samples were collected at selected sampling dates in suburban and industrial regions of Daejon city in the Republic of Korea. Mass concentrations and black carbon of PM were measured, and enrichment factors were calculated. The results were used to describe the emission sources and their correlation patterns.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: S. Almeida, M. Freitas, C. Repolho, I. Dionísio, H. Dung, A. Caseiro, C. Alves, C. Pio, and A. Pacheco

Abstract  

The goal of this research is to determine trends and sources of airborne particulates in the centre of Lisbon, by using speciated particulate-matter data and back-trajectory analyses. Results showed that, in 2007, the annual PM2.5 concentration exceeded the World Health Organization recommended levels. PM2.5 diurnal variability and the ratio between weekdays’ and weekends’ concentrations indicated that traffic contributed highly to decreasing air quality. Air back-trajectory analysis showed that maritime air mass transport had a significant role on air quality in Lisbon, promoting the decrease of anthropogenic aerosol concentrations.

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Abstract  

PM10 and PM2.5 samples were taken using a Gent sampler to characterize the atmospheric aerosol of Buenos Aires metropolitan area. A total of 114 samples were collected from October 2005 to October 2006 at one urban site, every third day, for 24 h. Samples were analyzed by neutron activation, and black carbon and mass concentration were determined. In both fractions, elemental and gravimetric mass concentrations were compared with historical data. Enrichment factors, backward trajectories and factor analysis were calculated. The attribution of pollution sources is discussed.

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