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International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering
Authors:
Ammar Al-Jodah
,
Saad Jabbar Abbas
,
Alaq F. Hasan
,
Amjad J. Humaidi
,
Abdulkareem Sh. Mahdi Al-Obaidi
,
Arif A. AL-Qassar
, and
Raaed F. Hassan

that involves the proposed control methodology is shown in Fig. 2 . The error between the reference and actual position is multiplied by the orthogonal rotational matrix to transfer the error from the world coordinates to the robot coordinates. The PSO

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error value. It is essential to adjust the PID parameters to obtain the desired output. For this purpose, various optimization algorithms are used. One of them is particle swarm optimization (PSO) [ 1 , 2 ]. PID is used in many applications such as

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by PSCs [ 17 ]. However, the development of MPPT controllers has also made use of optimization techniques that are based on swarm intelligence (SI) [ 18 , 19 ], like ant colony optimization (ACO) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) [ 20 , 21

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inverse kinematics (IK) of a 3-DOF redundant manipulator robot. Batista et al. [ 15 ] used Least Squares (LS), Recursive Least Square (RLS), and dynamic parameter identification algorithm based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) with search space defined

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Optimization (PSO); Ant Colony Optimization (ACO.); and Genetic Algorithm (GA); are commonly employed (GA). Despite its advantages over other artificial intelligence algorithms, as demonstrated by the results of this research, the SSO is rarely employed to

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Abstract  

The synergistic extraction of uranium(VI) from aqueous nitric acid solution with mixtures of bis(hexylsulfinyl)ethane (BHxSE) and petroleum sulfoxides (PSO) in 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane was studied. It has been found that the maximum synergistic extraction effect occurs when the molar ratio of PSO to BHxSE is close to 1. The composition of the complex of synergistic extraction was estimated as UO2(NO3)2 .BHxSE.PSO. The formation constant of the complex was equal to KBP = 4.23±0.03. The effects of extractant, nitric acid, salting-out agent, and complex anion concentrations and temperature on the extraction equilibrium of uranium(VI) were also studied.

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Abstract  

The effect of diluents on the extraction of uranium(VI) with petroleum sulfoxides (PSO) was studied. The decreasing order of extraction ability of PSO is as follows: benzene, toluene, cyclohexane, heptane, kerosene, carbon tetrachloride and chloroform. The effect of temperature on the extraction equilibrium was also investigated and enthalpy of the extraction was obtained. The relationship between the extraction equilibrium constantsK ex and the physical parameters of diluents can be derived.

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Abstract  

The synergic extraction of uranium(VI) from nitric acid solution with a mixture of bis(octylsulfinyl)ethane (BOSE) and petroleum sulfoxides (PSO) in 1,1,2,2- tetrachloroethane has been studied. The composition of the complex of the synergic extraction is UO2(NO3)2·BOSE·PSO. The formation constant of the complex is K PT = 4.44±0.23. The effect of extractant concentration, nitric acid concentration, salting-out agent concentration and temperature on the extraction equilibrium of uranium(VI) is also studied and the enthalpy of the extraction reaction is calculated. It has been found that the maximum synergic extraction effect occurs if the molar ratio of PSO to BOSE is one to one.

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Abstract  

The synergic extraction of uranium(VI) from nitric acid solution with petroleum sulfoxides (PSO) and tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) mixture has been studied. It has been found that maximum synergic extraction effect occurs if the molar ratio of PSO to TBP is two to three. The composition of the complex of synergic extraction is UO2(NO3)2·TBP·PSO. The formation constant of the complex isK PT=8.19. The effect of extractant concentration, nitric acid concentration, salting-out agent concentration and temperature on the extraction equilibrium of uranium(VI) was also studied.

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Abstract  

Some popular neutral extractants (PSO-petroleum sulfoxide, DOSO-di-n-octyl sulfoxide, TBP-tributylphosphate etc.) were chosen as synergist to study the synergistic effect on the extraction reaction with HBMPPT (4-benzoyl-2,4-dihydro-5-methyl-2-phenyl-3H-pyrazol-3-thione) for U(VI), and the synergistic separation ability of HBMPPT for U(VI) and Th(IV). The synergistic extraction ability shown by the studied systems for U(VI) is as follows: PSO>DOSO>TBP, and the same sequence was also verified for the separation coefficient of U(VI) and Th(IV). The synergistic complexes may be presented as: UO2NO3·BMPPT·S and UO2(BMPPT)2·S for U(VI) (S is PSO, DOSO or TBP).

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