Authors:K. Radó, Z. Németh, K. Varga, J. Schunk, and F. Kőrösi
the period of 1993-2001 chemical decontaminations of 24 SGs in the units 1-3 of
the Paks NPP were carried out by a non-regenerative version of AP-CITROX
technology, even in two or three consecutive cycles. A comprehensive
investigation of the above decontamination method have revealed that the
fundamental issues of analytical chemistry and corrosion science were not taken
into consideration during the elaboration of AP-CITROX procedure. Therefore,
the non-regenerative version of the technology utilized at Paks NPP can be
considered to be not an adequate method for the chemical decontamination of any
reactor equipments having large steel surfaces (e.g., SGs). As a consequence of
the lack of the appropriate decontamination method, initiation of a R&D project
focused on the elaboration of the required technology should not be postponed.
In this paper, we present a brief overview on the fundamental issues of the
technology development. Selected findings obtained in our laboratory on
the field of the improvement of the AP-CITROX technology are also reviewed in
order to demonstrate the crucial role of some selection criteria.
Authors:K. Varga, Z. Németh, J. Somlai, I. Varga, R. Szánthó, J. Borszéki, P. Halmos, J. Schunk, and P. Tilky
During the optimization of the AP-CITROX decontamination technology the effect of the different flow rates of the decontamination solutions on the radioactive contamination and corrosion state of stainless steel tube samples originating from steam generators of Paks NPP were studied by a pilot-plant circulation system. The results have proved that a significant increase (up to 2.89 m/s) in the flow rate of the decontamination solution in the 1-5 steps is highly recommended and in order to improve the passivity of the surfaces it should be kept as low as possible (0.5 m/s) during the passivation.
The aim of the present work was to reveal the kinetics of the accumulation of some possible contaminant on the surfaces of
structural materials (zirconium alloys and 08H18N10T stainless steel) in the primary circuit of Paks NPP. The kinetics of
adsorption and desorption of iodide, caesium and cerium ions were investigated by quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) installed
into a flow cell. The results on thin layers were confirmed by immersing experiments, using radiotracer technique and γ-spectrometry
to detect the traced ions on the surfaces. Experiments were carried out in electrolyte solution which was similar to the cooling
water. All measurements were carried out at room temperature. Both adsorption and desorption were found to be fast, taking
only several seconds; time constants were also evaluated.
Authors:P. Kádár, K. Varga, B. Baja, Z. Németh, N. Vajda, Zs. Stefánka, L. Kövér, I. Cserny, J. Tóth, T. Pintér, and J. Schunk
Within the frame of a joint project, the accumulation of the uranium and transuranium (TRU) species on some structural materials
used at Soviet made VVER-type pressurized water reactors (such as heat exchanger tube of steam generators and stainless steel
canister material) has been studied. The experiments were carried out in a laboratory model system. During the sorption studies,
boric acid coolants provided by the Paks Nuclear Power Plant (Paks NPP) were circulated for a period of 30 h. Solution and
tube samples obtained in the course of above experiments were analyzed by independent methods (α- and γ-spectrometry, ICP-MS,
SEM-EDX, voltammetry and XPS). The experimental results reveal that: (i) the surface excess of the TRU nuclides studied is
extremely low (less than 1% of a monolayer coverage); (ii) the surface excess of uranium species measured on the SG tube surfaces
is significantly higher, after 30 h sorption period (Γsample = 1.0 μg cm−2 U ≅ 3.7 × 10−9 mol cm−2 UO2) exceeds a monolayer coverage; (iii) the mechanistic features of the contamination processes (specific or non-specific adsorption,
deposition of colloidal and/or disperse particles) depend decisively upon the nature of the studied radionuclides and the
chemical structure and composition of the oxide layer formed on stainless steel surfaces.
Authors:P. Ormai, A. Fritz, J. Solymosi, I. Gresits, E. Hertelendi, Z. Szúcs, N. Vajda, Zs. Molnár, and P. Zagyvai
In the execution of disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes, it is important to evaluate accurately the kind and quantity of each radionuclide in the wastes. For such an evaluation, correlation of non-gamma-emitting nuclides based on gamma-emitting nuclides is recommended and regarded as a practical method. This method necessitates a completion of a highly accurate and reliable nondestructive assay system of gamma-emitting nuclides for practical use. In 1992, in support of the new waste disposal program in Hungary, Paks NPP initiated a waste characterization program to determine the radiological properties of its radwastes. A segmented gamma scanning system has been set up to measure the gamma-emitting nuclides in 200 litre low level drums following in-drum compaction. In the framework of the program a radiochemical analysis sub-program was started to determine the long-lived non-gamma emitting radionuclides, mainly those listed in the US regulatory document (10CFR61). The radionuclides of interest have been3H,14C,90Sr,55Fe,59Ni,99Tc,129I and TRUs. Sample preparation techniques and measurement methods have been selected and used. Newly developed or adopted methods have been tested on real liquid radwaste streams such as concentrates, ion-exchange resin and sludge. The measurements taken so far have revealed brand new information and data on radiological composition of waste of WWER-type reactors. In the next stage of the characterisation program attempt will be made for providing correlation factors between the gamma and non-gamma-emitting radionuclides in different waste streams. Short description of the methods and results on waste inventory are given by highlighting the problem areas.
Authors:Zoltán Németh, Bernadett Baja, Krisztián Radó, Emese Deák, Kálmán Varga, Andrea Nagy, János Schunk, and Gábor Patek
Decontamination technologies are generally developed to reduce the collective dose of the maintenance and operation personnel
at nuclear power plants (NPP). The highest efficiency (i.e., the highest decontamination factors) available without detrimental
modification of the treated surface of structural material is the most important goal in the course of the application of
a decontamination technology. At the Paks NPP the AP-CITROX procedure has been utilized for the decontamination of the primary
coolant circuit’s components (e.g., main circulating pump (MCP) and steam generators (SGs)). Our previous studies have revealed
that a ‘hybrid’ structure of the amorphous and crystalline phases was formed in the outermost surface region of the austenitic
stainless steel tubes of SGs as an undesired consequence of the industrial application of the AP-CITROX decontamination technology
during the period of 1993–2001. In this paper, we report some comparative findings on the corrosion and surface chemical effects
of the AP-CITROX procedure and the novel decontamination technology elaborated at our institution. On optimizing the operational
parameters the latter technology may become suitable for the effective decontamination of both dismountable (e.g., MCP swivel)
and separable (e.g., SGs) equipments. For this purpose experiments were performed. In this laboratory scale experiments, the
passivity, morphology and chemical compositions of the treated surfaces of tube specimens were investigated by voltammetry,
and SEM–EDX methods, respectively. The SEM–EDX results have revealed that the oxide removal is surprisingly uniform even after
2 or 3 consecutive cycles. The electrochemical studies have provided evidences that no unfavorable tendencies in the general
corrosion state of the tube samples can be detected in the course of the chemical treatments.
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