containing a unique and ‘hand-made’ text may contribute to the results what linguists can obtain from the much more formulaic and even once checked and proved stone inscriptions. In the past few years new pieces were found in Pannonia, 2 the grown number of
Introduction Forty years have passed since Barnabás Lőrincz wrote his short paper on Roman tile kilns in Pannonia where he assessed information about the tile kilns of sixteen settlements. 1 Several tile kilns have been found ever since and our
In this paper the author studies the relationship of Christian communities in Pannonia. On the basis of literary (esp. Victorinus of Poetovio) and epigraphical sources it can be stated that the first communities were of Greek origin. The knowledge of Greek can be pointed out in Latin inscriptions as well. Especially the case of Sirmium was studied. In the present paper the author reinterpreted a Greek and a Latin inscription from Sirmium and Savaria as Christians.
One of the last episodes of late Roman Pannonia was – according to several theories – that Emperor Avitus would have visited Pannonia in 455–456 AD and regained the control of the provinces after Attila’s death and the battle of Nedao in 454. 1
Curious little amulets in the shape of miniature juglets are rare finds in Pannonia: no more than a handful are known from this region. The appearance of this curious type can be dated to the late Roman period. It was principally distributed on the
The role of Pannonian soldiers in the guards is traceable from the 2nd century while their number and significance had grown considerably both in the units of praetoriani and equites singulares from the rule of Septimius Severus. Inscriptional sources mention that from time to time their families, wives and kin moved to Rome with the guardsmen. On their gravestone reliefs, one can find themes both from their homelands, traditions and from new Roman erudition. The decades spent serving the Emperor in Rome could mean social advancement, gaining fortune and recognition while the best ones could become military officers. After retiring from service, they could play an important role in the life of the province and in the Romanization of Pannonia as well.
Aelius Caesar’s Pannonia coin in light of Hadrian’s succession politics. Pannonia province’s first securely identified personification is found on one of Aelius Caesar’s coin reverses, minted in 137. A.D. Its occurrence can be explained with that he was the newly designated heir to the throne, who was sent to govern both Pannonia Inferior and Superior. Its iconography that is based on Hadrian’s Concordia exercituum coin from 119–120/121, has a clear message, which calls upon the inhabitants of the empire and especially the soldiers to swear allegiance and loyalty to the new heir. It is interesting to see that both Trajan and Hadrian were in command of a large number of troops, when they came to power, just like Aelius. Putting the designated heir in charge of a considerable military strength was a well working way to secure that the throne was passed on to whom it was intended to. Pannonia’s further importance lay in its strategic geographical position, because it was a territory that was in charge of a large army, but was also located closest to Rome.
A lead tablet recently discovered in the eastern cemetery of the Aquincum civil town is of much interest. The tablet which can be dated on archaeological grounds to the late 2nd-early 3rd centuries AD seems to be a binding curse of a group of men against another group, written in Latin. This curse tablet is especially significant because only five more Latin curses had previously been found in the territory of Roman Pannonia and it supports the inferences that can be deducted from this small collection.
Regarding the Mithras cult, Pannonia had an exceptional status in the Roman Empire. This unique status was connected with the huge numbers of military forces stationed there. Numerous inscriptions and altars give evidence that Pannonia had an uncommon sensitivity for religions; this is why some local characteristics and relief-versions could be made, for example: dadophores with pelta shields, and unique dedicational forms which are mostly known in Pannonia, and perhaps spread from there to other parts of the Empire. In my paper, I want to show the connections between Mithras and Sol on their Pannonian representations.