Authors:S. Hosseini, A. Moghadassi, D. Henneke, and Ali Elkamel
Changes in the thermal conductivities of paraffin and mono ethylene glycol (MEG) as a function of β-SiC nanoparticle concentration
and size was studied. An enhancement in the effective thermal conductivity was found for both fluids (i.e., both paraffin
and MEG) upon the addition of nanoparticles. Although an enhancement in thermal conductivity was found, the degree of enhancement
depended on the nanoparticle concentration in a complex way. An increase in particle-to-particle interactions is thought to
be the cause of the enhancement. However, the enhancement became muted at higher particle concentrations compared to lower
ones. This phenomenon can be related to nanoparticles interactions. An improvement in the thermal conductivities for both
fluids was also found as the nanoparticle size shrank. It is believed that the larger Brownian motion for smaller particles
causes more particle-to-particle interactions, which, in turn, improves the thermal conductivity. The role that the base-fluid
plays in the enhancement is complex. Lower fluid viscosities are believed to contribute to greater enhancement, but a second
effect, the interaction of the fluid with the nanoparticle surface, can be even more important. Nanoparticle-liquid suspensions
generate a shell of organized liquid molecules on the particle surface. These organized molecules more efficiently transmit
energy, via phonons, to the bulk of the fluid. The efficient energy transmission results in enhanced thermal conductivity.
The experimentally measured thermal conductivities of the suspensions were compared to a variety of models. None of the models
proved to adequately predict the thermal conductivities of the nanoparticle suspensions.
The application of particle acclerators in industrial research is reviewed. An R and D mechanism of nuclear analytical research
is suggested to illustrate the driving force that doubles in a couple of years the number of publications almost in every
branch of nuclear analytical methods. After a general discussion of particle interactions, the various methods of activation
analysis and prompt nuclear methods and their applications are shown.
Self-irradiation effects due to -radiation in plutonium/IV/ hydroxo phenyl acetate, Pu/OH/3/C6H5CH2COO/ and hydroxo -naphthyl acetate, Pu/OH/3/C10H7CH2COO/ have been studied by EPR technique. OH and C6H5CH2COO. species are identified in the phenyl acetate while the C10H7CH2COO. species is detected in -naphthyl acetate. The values of the efficiency parameter, , determined for OH, C6H5CH2COO. and C10H7CH2COO. species are 0.8, 1.31 and 2.18, respectively. The results are interpreted on the basis of the thermal spikes associated with the alpha particle interaction with the lattice.
Authors:Tamás Szegi, E. Tombácz, Zs. Czibulya, J. Akagi, and A. Zsolnay
A lot of attention is
being paid to the understanding of the influence of soil degradation on human
life at the beginning of the 21
century. Among the many types of
degradation processes, structural degradation is widespread on huge areas in
Europe. For better control, it is needed to get familiar with all the driving
forces, the main reasons that lead to soil degradation (Várallyay, 2003; ESB, 2002). In addition to unfavourable
natural conditions, inappropriate land use has an important impact on
micro-aggregate stability and the rate of tolerance to deformation forces, such
as cultivation and erosion. Rheological
measurements provide new quantitative information on particle-particle
interaction, the colloidal stability and structure of concentrated suspensions
in general. Field samples from loess derived agricultural soils were
investigated. In addition to general laboratory analyses (soil organic matter
content, CEC), conventional, simple aggregate
stability, and water retention measurements and rheology were applied for
investigating the micro-aggregate stability of the samples. The evaluation of
pseudoplastic flow curves indicated close relationships between the strength
and stability of the physical network and the composition of the suspensions.
These soil properties have strong, well-defined connection with tolerating
cultivation and capability for erosion.
Authors:D. Patidar, Sonalika Agrawal, and N. S. Saxena
temperature ( T gp ) at 8 wt% (beyond 6 wt%) of CdS nano-particles in PMMA is caused due to the change in dispersion of nano-particles from uniform to clustering, which is also confirmed by TEM images. This clustering enhances the particle–particleinteraction
Authors:Slobodan Stojadinovic, Jasmina Pekez, and Nikola Bajic
deformed, (strained), crystal lattice of basis, because of the soluted atoms of alloyed elements. Complex heterogeneous alloys, that can boost, in other words strengthen also on account of: interaction of dislocation and dispersion particles, interaction of
Authors:N. Ivashchenko, V. Tertykh, V. Yanishpolskii, J. Skubiszewska-Zięba, R. Leboda, and S. Khainakov
for the palladium face-centered cubic lattice [ 24 ].
It can be assumed from the TEM images that the nature of surface layer strongly affects the size of formed metal particles. Interaction of palladium nitrate solution with TES-modified silica
Authors:Christophe Block, Nick Watzeels, Hubert Rahier, Bruno Van Mele, and Guy Van Assche
to quantify via a single parameter the solid-like behaviour of the nanofiller network. Adding well-dispersed nanofiller to the matrix is also likely to alter the rheological behaviour of the polymer close to the filler particles due to matrix–particle