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Abstract  

Advances in information technology have increased actual and potential uses of patent statistics as proxy measures of innovative activities. Analytical contributions have come out of economics, bibliometrics, and descriptive comparisons for policy purposes. They show achievement of promise in analysing (1) international patterns of innovative activities and their effects on trade and production; (2) patterns of innovative activities amongst firms, and their effects on firm performance and industrial structure; (3) rates and directions of innovative activities in different technical fields and industrial sectors; (4) links between science and technology.However, systematic biases remain in patent statistics, the full assessment of which require further econometric, classificatory and survey research.

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Abstract  

In a recent article a set of indicators have been proposed drawing upon patent statistics, which are meant to describe and compare firm and national research competence. However this article has raised more questions on the validity of such indicators as well as on their use. We have thus examined these issues so as to clarify the nature of the problems involved in the construction of competence and competitive indicators of firms and nations and their subsequent implementation on data bases.

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Abstract  

Numbers of patents cannot indicate the state of research or the contents of patent documentation cannot indicate the true technological features achieved. Patent statistics though so used, is not a good indicator of the economic returns to investments in research. Use of this statistics for understanding the degree of competition and the competition-driven research strategy is attractive. A patent document is part of the public knowledge in such a way as to restrict the growth of the future public knowledge. This portent on the future content of research and on the number and areas of research, by a current application is a competition-defining aspect. This effect on the lagged future applications and accepting patent disclosure as an intentional strategic data — are the most significant characteristics of patent statistics. The present paper applied this understanding, and generated a number of indices derived from data bases on patenting. These are indicators on Competition, Technology Pool, Language Technology Pool, Modified Competition, Market Attractiveness and on the Strength of Patent Market. Values of these indicators for biotechnological research and for several countries have been derived as example.

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Abstract  

In order to formulate firm, national or regional technology policy, it is necessary to have indicators that can measure technological competence. This paper develops a set of indicators using patent statistics to compare the “knowledge base” of individuals, laboratories, firms or nations. These indicators are then applied to the patent applications in France, Germany and the U.K. in the biotechnology sectors. The paper shows that France is lagging behind Germany and the U.K. in technology stocks (or its patent applications) in all biotechnology fields. However it is the leader in the technology network supporting the foods industry. It has a comparative advantage in terms of either technology stock counts or networks in Genetic Engineering, Pharmaceuticals, Foods, Chemicals, Cell Culture and Biocatalysis. Germany is leading in many sectors, but in all sectors in which it is a leader, it is a specialized leader, i.e. its technology networks need to be more extensive. It has a comparative advantage in terms of either technology stock counts or networks in all sectors except Genetic Engineering, Pharmaceuticals, Agriculture and Cell Culture. The U.K. is the leader in the important field of Genetic Engineering and in terms of the entire technology networks in the biotechnology sectors. It has a comparative advantage in terms of either technology stock counts or networks in Genetic Engineering, Pharmaceuticals, Agriculture and Purification.

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Abstract  

Patent statistics are a frequently used innovation indicator for the description and analysis of technological strengths and weaknesses, both on the macro and the micro level. Patent data has a broad coverage, high reliability, allows a very differentiated perspective and the data has become easier in availability and accessibility. Especially when cross country comparisons and comparative assessments are intended, a deep knowledge and understanding of patent systems is required. In the 1990s Triadic patents, which were able to balance the home advantage of domestic applicants/inventors. An increasing internationalisation and globalisation makes it also necessary to adapt the patent analyses to this new world order. In this paper the so called Transnational patents are suggested, which allows to grasp the new relations and relative positions between the industrialised, industrialising and emerging countries. The existing concepts are presented and discussed and contrasted against the concept of Transnational Patents.

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Abstract  

This contribution deepens the feasibility issues of building state-of-the-art patent indicators with historical patent documents available in electronic form from the German Patent Office since the introduction of the Patent Law for the German Empire in 1877. The paper is divided into two parts: a methodological discussion and a case study on the chemical sector in Germany. The development of the technology sector defined matches remarkably well with stylised facts that institutional analysis in the chemical sector have provided us with so far. Moreover, the possibility of varying the level of aggregation in the analysis of technological areas discloses empirical evidence for the path-dependent development in the chemical sector after the advent of the organic chemistry and its application in the chemical synthesis of dye stuffs. Our findings enhance institutional and historical contributions about technological change in the chemical sector and suggest new research questions for innovation studies.

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Abstract  

In 1883 the Kingdom of Serbia was a co-founder of the well-known Paris Convention dedicated to protection of industrial property. This paper presents the analysis of inventive activities in Serbia in the period from 1921 to 1995. The available patent statistics is analyzed from the aspects of: (a) patenting structure according to the International Patent Classification sections, and (b) patenting dynamics. The findings of analysis indicate: (1) the fields in which technology development potentials are created in Serbia, and (2) the variations in inventors' productivity as a direct consequence of the variation in the country's innovation policy.

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Abstract  

The publication of patent applications by the patent offices is the first information available about new technologies. But patent statistics are often distorted due to the exceedingly great number of domestic applications field in Japan and the delayed publication of patent applications filed in the USA. These distortions can be eliminated to a great extent if only those patent applications are considered for which external applications are also included. Patent indicators allow for a differentiated observation of technological advances before the actual emergence of an innovation. Recent developments in superconductivity provide an example.

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.4, 16.8 and 16.0 %, respectively (Guan and He 2007 ). Discussion and conclusion Patent statistics can be used to analyze the relative competitiveness of a country at the international level. The current study used IPC

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