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Among a wide range of cytokines, the Interleukin 12 (IL-12) family has its unique structural, functional, and immunological characteristics that have made this family as important immunological playmakers. Because of the importance of IL-12 heterodimeric cytokines in microbial infections, autoimmune diseases, and cancers, the authors of this literature discuss about the general characteristics of IL-12 family members, the interactions between IL-12 cytokines and pathogenic microorganisms, the interleukins receptors and their strategies for selecting different signalling pathways. IL-12 and IL-23 are similar in p40 subunits and both are involved in proinflammatory responses while, IL-27 and IL-35 contribute to anti-inflammatory activities; however, IL-27 is also involved in pro-inflammatory responses. There are some similarities and dissimilarities among IL-12 family members which make them a unique bridge between innate and adaptive immune systems. The bioactivities of IL-12 family indicate a brilliant promise for their applications in different fields of medicine. The members of IL-12 family are candidate for several therapeutics including gene therapy, cancer therapy, tumour therapy, and vaccination. To have an accurate diagnostic technique and definite treatment regarding to infectious diseases, the playmakers of IL-12 family as effective criteria together with microarray technology are the best choices for current and future applications.

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Introduction The proportion of pathogenic microorganisms in the microbial world is relatively small, while its threat to human health, economic development and social stability is severe. Infectious diseases are newly emergent

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The quality of drinking water is a major public concern, but the detection of most potential pathogens is not always included in drinking water hygienic monitoring or is only assessed with highly biased cultivation-based methods. In this study, the occurrence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Legionella spp. was examined with taxon-specific PCRs in samples taken at ten points of a municipal drinking water supply system in three months. Sequence analysis confirmed the positivity of samples and revealed a diverse community of legionellae. The results showed that chlorination was an important and effective disinfection method against pathogenic bacteria in drinking water, but pathogenic bacteria could reoccur in the system farther away from the chlorination point. No strong correlation was found between the presence of the investigated potentially pathogenic bacteria and the measured abiotic and biotic parameters within the investigated range. It is hypothesized that instead of physicochemical parameters, the main factors influencing the presence of pathogens in the drinking water were rather the composition of the microbial community, the biotic interactions between individual non-pathogenic and pathogenic microorganisms (competition or promotion of growth) and the structure of biofilm grown on the inner surface of the supply system.

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This study examines the antibacterial properties of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX), Listerine®, and high purity chlorine dioxide (Solumium, ClO2) on selected common oral pathogen microorganisms and on dental biofilm in vitro. Antimicrobial activity of oral antiseptics was compared to the gold standard phenol. We investigated Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Enterococcus faecalis, Veillonella alcalescens, Eikenella corrodens, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Candida albicans as some important representatives of the oral pathogens. Furthermore, we collected dental plaque from the upper first molars of healthy young students. Massive biofilm was formed in vitro and its reduction was measured after treating it with mouthrinses: CHX, Listerine® or hyper pure ClO2. Their biofilm disrupting effect was measured after dissolving the crystal violet stain from biofilm by photometer. The results have showed that hyper pure ClO2 solution is more effective than other currently used disinfectants in case of aerobic bacteria and Candida yeast. In case of anaerobes its efficiency is similar to CHX solution. The biofilm dissolving effect of hyper pure ClO2 is significantly stronger compared to CHX and Listerine® after 5 min treatment. In conclusion, hyper pure ClO2 has a potent disinfectant efficacy on oral pathogenic microorganisms and a powerful biofilm dissolving effect compared to the current antiseptics, therefore high purity ClO2 may be a new promising preventive and therapeutic adjuvant in home oral care and in dental or oral surgery practice.

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In a survey of about 3000 dairy cows producing low somatic cell count (SCC) milk and kept on a large-scale dairy farm, California Mastitis Test (CMT) positivity was found in 2714 udder quarters of 1491 cows. Pathogenic microorganisms were isolated from 57.6% of these 2714 udder quarters during bacteriological examination. The commonest pathogens were coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS, 41%) and Staphylococcus aureus (32.5%); however, udder infections caused by environmental streptococci (12.8%) and coliform bacteria (6.8%) were also common. All pathogens resulted in a significant increase of the SCC in individual bulk milk (IBM) samples. In the case of CNS, this SCC elevation in IBM was significantly lower than in the case of infection by the other pathogens. In spite of this, because of the high number of udder infections caused by CNS, the adverse effect exerted by CNS on dairy herds is considered to be substantial. It was found that 54.6% of all CMT-positive cows produced IBM of an SCC below 400 thousand per ml. The milk produced by 41% of the 315 cows excreting S. aureus also had an SCC below 400 thousand per ml. This poses a serious risk of infection to the healthy herdmates. At the same time, 11% of the infected cows produced IBM with an SCC below 100 thousand per ml. On the basis of these findings, only the regular analysis of SCC of IBM can be a reliable indicator of chronic intramammary infection. As the SCC of milk produced by CMT-positive cows (and especially of those excreting pathogens) tended to increase with advancing lactation, the authors suggest that an efficient drying-off therapy should be used to restore udder health and, whenever justified, culling of cows cannot be avoided either.

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TLC-bioautography, a convenient and simple mean of testing plant extracts and pure substances for their effects on pathogenic microorganisms, enables easy detection of active fractions. Its application requires a medium fluid enough to cast suspensions of microorganisms but viscous enough to adhere to the TLC plate and maintain sufficient humidity for bacterial growth. Mueller-Hinton (MH) agar and broth are often used for this purpose. These media have major drawbacks, however — microorganisms can suffer thermal shock from the temperature required for agar casting, and agar can also dilute the antimicrobial compounds, and immersion broth does not conveniently adhere to the TLC plate and dries too rapidly. To overcome these problems, we investigated several combinations of MH broth and MH agar (proportions 95:5, 90:10, 85:15, 80:20, 75:25, 70:30, 60:60, and 50:50) to discover a medium sufficiently fluid to prepare bacterial suspensions at 37°C (the temperature for optimum growth of many pathogenic bacteria) yet which solidifies at ambient temperature. The mixture MH broth-MH agar 90:10 fulfilled these requirements; media containing higher proportions of MH agar were solid at 37°C and those containing lower proportions of MH agar flowed down the plate, partly carrying the active spots, leading to poor detection and resolution. This simple modification of the culture medium can be applied to most media amenable to TLC-bioautography. This 90:10 mixture was used to detect antimicrobial compounds in a Congolese medicinal plant, Cordia gilletii De Wild (Boraginaceae), affording superior chromatographic resolution compared with MH broth alone. The active extracts were further compared by a second TLC bioassay for compounds able to quench the luminescence of Vibrio fischerii , a bioindicator for toxicity and general biological activity.

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A number of essential oils from citrus peels are claimed to have biological activities. Citrus peel, called ‘Jin-Pi’, is used in traditional medicine for digestion, severe cold, and fever. However, the antibacterial activities against skin pathogens and anti-inflammatory effects of the essential oils of Citrus sunki (JinGyul) and Fortunella japonica var. margarita (GumGyul) have not yet been described. Therefore, in this study, the essential oils of the citrus species C. sunki (CSE) and F. japonica var. margarita (FJE), both native to the island of Jeju, Korea, were examined for their anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities against skin pathogens. Four human skin pathogenic microorganisms, Staphylococcus epidermidis CCARM 3709, Propionibacterium acnes CCARM 0081, Malassezia furfur KCCM 12679, and Candida albicans KCCM 11282, were studied. CSE and FJE exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against most of the pathogenic bacteria and yeast strains that were tested. Interestingly, CSE and FJE even showed antimicrobial activity against antibiotic-resistant S. epidermidis CCARM 3710, S. epidermidis CCARM 3711, P. acnes CCARM9009, and P. acnes CCARM9010 strains. In addition, CSE and FJE reduced the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced secretion of nitric oxide (NO) in RAW 264.7 cells, indicating that they have anti-inflammatory effects. We also analysed the chemical composition of the oils by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and identified several major components, including dl-limonene (68.18%) and β-myrcene (4.36%) for CSE, and dl-limonene (61.58%) and carvone (6.36%) for FJE. Taken together, these findings indicate that CSE and FJE have great potential to be used in human skin health applications.

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Authors: Dorottya Gheorghita, Gabriella Eördegh, Ferenc Nagy and Márk Antal

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A cardiovascularis betegség világszerte a halálozás és a rokkantság vezető oka. Ezen halálozások többségének hátterében atheroscleroticus és thromboembolisatiós folyamatok állnak, amelyek ischaemiás szívbetegség és stroke kialakulásához vezetnek. A gyulladásos folyamatok szerepe jól dokumentált mind az atherosclerosis, mind az atherothrombosis kialakulásában. Egyre több tudományos eredmény támasztja alá a fogágybetegség, azon belül is a parodontitis szerepét az atherosclerosis és így a cardiovascularis betegségek egyik potenciális rizikófaktoraként. A krónikus gyulladásban lévő, fertőzött parodontalis tasakban lévő kórokozók, valamint azok toxinjai és bomlástermékei növelik a szervezetben zajló szisztémás gyulladásos választ. A szisztémás keringésbe jutva és magukat az atheroscleroticus plakkokat is infiltrálva, további lokális és szisztémás gyulladásos választ indukálnak, összességében fokozzák az atherosclerosis progresszióját, és potenciálisan növelik a cardiovascularis megbetegedések kialakulásának kockázatát. Ennek megfelelően a jó általános szájhigiénia, súlyosabb esetekben parodontalis terápiával elősegítve, potenciálisan csökkentheti a cardiovascularis megbetegedések kialakulásának kockázatát, és része lehet a primer és szekunder prevenciós tevékenységeknek is. Jelen közleményünk célja a fogágybetegség és a cardiovascularis megbetegedések közötti lehetséges patofiziológiai kapcsolatok összefoglalása epidemiológiai vizsgálatok alapján, klinikai evidenciák bemutatása a fogágybetegség és bizonyos cardiovascularis kórképek között, valamint megvizsgálni a parodontalis terápia lehetséges hatásainak szerepét a cardiovascularis megbetegedések megelőzésében, kezelésében. Orv Hetil. 2019; 160(11): 419–425.

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Authors: Anna Mathesz, Sándor Valkai, Orsolya Sipos, Balázs Stercz, Béla Kocsis, Dóra Szabó and András Dér

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Bevezetés: A patogén baktériumok orvosi diagnosztikájában az egyik legfontosabb elvárás a kórokozók minél gyorsabb érzékelése és azonosítása. A legtöbb modern módszer a kimutatni kívánt baktériumokhoz specifikusan kötött, jól detektálható jelölőmolekulák alkalmazásán (érzékelésén) alapul. Ez azonban erősen idő- és költségigényes, többlépcsős folyamat. (A széles körben alkalmazott enzimkapcsolt immunszorbent assay technika például általában 5 technológiai lépést használ.) A gyorsabb és költséghatékonyabb módszerek iránti igény hívta életre az úgynevezett jelölésmentes technikákat. Célkitűzés: Jelen dolgozatban a szerzők által kifejlesztett, baktériumok és biomolekulák jelölésmentes érzékelésére szolgáló integrált optikai eszközt mutatnak be. Módszer: Az eszköz lelke egy polimerszálakból üveglemezre épített, nagy érzékenységű Mach–Zehnder-interferométer. Ezt mikrofluidikai csatornával kombinálva olyan eszközt készítettek, amely – csekély mennyiségű antitest felhasználásával funkcionalizálva – alkalmassá tehető baktériumok gyors, specifikus érzékelésére kis térfogatú folyadékmintából. Eredmények: Eddigi kísérleteik szerint az eszköz néhány perc alatt képes az Escherichia coli baktérium 106 cfu/ml (telepképző egység/ml) koncentrációjának érzékelésére. Következtetések: A módszer a funkcionalizálás változtatásával (más antitestek használatával) elvileg különböző baktériumok vagy biomolekulák érzékelésére is használható, széles körű alkalmazási lehetőségeket teremtve az orvosi mikrobiológiában, patológiában, bűnügyi helyszíneléseknél, környezetvédelmi vizsgálatokban vagy akár a bioterrorizmussal kapcsolatos helyzetekben is. Orv. Hetil., 2015, 156(52), 2116–2119.

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/carcasses. -in: Colin, P. & Mulder, W.A.W. (Eds) COST Action 97 7. Pathogenic microorganisms in poultry and eggs . European Comm. Luxembourg, pp. 17-35. Chemical methods for decontamination and preservation of poultry

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