Phase diagrams of urea-α-naphthol and urea-benzoic acid systems, determined by the thaw-melt method, show the formation of
simple eutectic in each case. The growth velocity data, determined at different undercooling (ΔT) by observing the rate of
movement of interface in a capillary, obey the Hillig-Turnbull equation, v=u(ΔT)n, where u and n are constants depending on the nature of the materials. Using enthalpy of fusion, undercooling (ΔT) and melting
point data, entropy of fusion, interfacial energy, enthalpy of mixing, critical radius size and excess thermodynamic functions
were calculated. The microstructural investigations give characteristic features of the eutectics.
Authors:Ying Hui Shao, Xiao Ning Ren, Zi Ru Liu, and Xiang Zhang
The eutectic ternary phase diagrams of some typical volatilizable energetic materials have been investigated by high pressure differential scanning calorimeter (PDSC). The ternary H–X phase diagrams for TNT/TNAZ/DNTF (TTD) and TNAZ/DNTF/RDX (TDR) systems were constructed by the correlation of the apparent fusion heat with the composition (H–X method). And, the ternary T–X phase diagrams (the temperature dependence on composition) for the two ternary systems were constructed by calculating from the data of the five T–X binary phase diagrams. The eutectic compositions (mol%) of TTD and TDR ternary systems were obtained to be 52.3/27.3/20.4 (H–X method), 53.2/25.8/21.0 (T–X method) and 54.9/39.6/5.5 (H–X method), 55.1/42.2/2.7 (T–X method), respectively. The eutectic temperatures of the ternary systems were obtained by PDSC determination and T–X method calculation to be 76.5 and 76.7 °C, 47.5 and 50.2 °C, respectively. It is shown that the results obtained by two methods are in agreement and the error in measuring or calculating eutectic compositions and temperatures for the two ternary systems are within allowable ranges of ±3 mol% and ±3 °C, respectively. Moreover, by means of constructing two ternary H–X phase diagrams with different fixed composition of a component and comparing the apparent fusion heat of eutectics with calculated one, the results obtained from H–X method for TTD system were proved. The results showed that the gasification or volatilization of easy volatile materials could be efficiently restrained by high pressure atmosphere, and the perfectly and ideally H–X ternary phase diagrams can be constructed. In comparison with T–X method, H–X method has as a virtue of being quick and simple, especially on constructing ternary phase diagram.
Authors:Hui-Zhen Fu, Kun-Yang Chuang, Ming-Huang Wang, and Yuh-Shan Ho
multidisciplinary with 1,106 papers (26% of all ESI papers from China), namely multidisciplinary chemistry and multidisciplinary materials and science, followed closely by physicalchemistry with 407 (10%). Multidisciplinary chemistry ranked 1st from 2003 to 2008
investigations of solution properties and phase equilibria involving solutions in general, and aqueous solutions in particular, have held prominent positions in (bio-)physicalchemistry. The scientific insights gained thereby are invaluable, and besides
chapter of the Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry contains selected
papers presented at the European Conference on Calorimetry and Thermal Analysis
for Environment (ECCTAE 2005) organised by the Centre of Excellence TALES
(Thermodynamic Laboratory for Environmental Purposes), Institute of Physical
Chemistry of Polish Academy of Sciences and held under the auspices of Prof.
Janusz Lipkowski, the Vice-President of the Polish Academy of Sciences (PAS).
The Conference took place on September 6–11, 2005 in the Conference
and Holiday Centre ‘Antałwka’ in Zakopane, Poland.
In the past, the first
International Conference on the Calorimetry and Thermodynamics was organized
by the Institute of Physical Chemistry of PAS in 1969 in Warsaw. This conference
was dedicated to Prof. Wojciech Świętosławski, the late outstanding
thermodynamic scientist who died on April 29, 1968. He was one of the most
prominent Polish physicochemist and the first director general of the Institute
of Physical Chemistry of PAS, which had been founded in 1965.
In effect of the successful
performance of such conference, the Institute of Physical Chemistry organized
later the four National Conferences on Calorimetry and Thermal Analysis in
Zakopane from 1973 to 1988. The Organizing Chairman was Prof. Wojciech Zielenkiewicz,
the Corresponding Member of the Polish Academy of Sciences, who also initiated
to create the Polish Society of Calorimetry and Thermal Analysis (PTKAT) with
the name of Prof. Wojciech Świętosławski. Later, from 1991 to
2003, the next five Conferences on Calorimetry and Thermal Analysis of the
PTKAT was also organized in Zakopane by Prof. L. Stoch of the University of
Science and Technology (AGH) of Krakow, by Prof. H. Piekarski of the University
of Łdź, Prof. A. Małecki of the University of Science
and Technology (AGH), and Prof. A. Książczak of the Warsaw University
of Technology. In these organizations, the Institute of Physical Chemistry
of PAS also participated.
The aim of the Conference ECCTAE 2005 was to bring together
all scientists interested in the calorimetry and thermal analysis applied
for environmental purposes and came from the academy, universities, laboratories,
industries, agencies, etc. Finally, 92 participants from eleven countries
(Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Italy, France, Portugal, Romania, Russia,
Sweden, United Kingdom, and Poland) took part in the Conference. The scientific
program of the ECCTAE with 16 plenary lectures, 14 lectures and 53 posters
reflected the most recent developments in the field of science and supplied
many new results on environment and biochemistry, organic and inorganic. Calorimetry
and thermal analysis play the major role in investigations on new materials
for environment and biochemistry. New experimental techniques like solution,
surfactant, combustion and hazard calorimetry, hazard thermal analysis, etc.
are of the utmost importance.
Finally, I would like to thank all the participants
in the Conference and the authors for the careful preparation of their presentations
and manuscripts in this special chapter of the Journal of Thermal Analysis
and Calorimetry. I would also like to thank the best to all co-workers of
the Organizing Committee.
Hopefully, all of the participants from several countries
enjoyed the wonderful days of this Conference in the beautiful place of Zakopane.
small number of publications are collected in this Special Chapter of the
J. Therm. Anal. Cal. All these publications of the Special Chapter are related
to scientific areas, which are presented and discussed at our International
Conferences on Pharmacy and Applied Physical Chemistry. Of course, the publications
collected here are only some typical highlights compared with the scientific
program of the PhandTA 8, Monte Verit, 2004 with 50 oral contributions
and 25 poster presentations. A rather complete overview of the scientific
program was presented in J. Therm. Anal. Cal., 57, 1999. The latter volume
represents a considerable part of the contributions given at the PhandTA 3,
held in 1997 at the Centro Stefano Fanscini at Monte Verit, Ascona,
Switzerland. The scientific program is the essential part of our Conferences,
however, the conference site at Monte Verit is by its history, by
the site on top of a hill situated in a wonderful park, overlooking Ascona
and the Lago Maggiore a rather ideal place for the conferences of our anticipated
quality. The PhandTA conferences were three times held at Monte Verit.
The next one, the PhandTA 9 will be held on September 10 to 13, 2006 at the
“Institut fr Pharmazeutische Technology und Biopharmazie”,
University of Dsseldorf, Germany. The 10th
anniversary, namely the PhandTA 10, will be held from Sunday 21st
to Wednesday 24th of October, 2007.
This anniversary meeting will also express our activities over a period of
15 years since the foundation of the European Society for Applied Physical
Chemistry in 1992.
With both of these Conferences we plan to create
a Special Chapter in the JTAC.
I extend on behave of the members
of the board of eurostar-science an invitation to the members of our society
and to our scientific friends to participate in the two forthcoming PhandTA’s.
Additionally, all possible participants should consider a publication of the
presented scientific work in cooperation with the members of the board and
the editors of this journal.
Cordially, Erwin E. Marti President
of the European Society for Applied Physical Chemistry
The scientometric study of the tendencies of change of basic chromatographic characteristics has been carried out based on the analysis of the content of papers published in this area in the following journals: Journal of Planar Chromatography — Modern TLC, Chromatographia, Journal of Chromatography A, Analytical Chemistry, Journal of Analytical Chemistry, Russian Journal of Physical Chemistry A, Sorption and Chromatographic Processes (Russia), as well as the abstracts of the articles published in CAMAG Bibliography Service (CBS). Based on the comparison of the contents of the articles on thin-layer chromatography (TLC) published in the recent two decades: (1) from 1980 to 1990 and (2) from 2000 to 2010, the estimate of the main analytical characteristics characterizing the method of planar chromatography has been carried out. The following characteristics of planar chromatography were taken as the most important ones for the above mentioned periods of time: methods of chromatography, a type of a chromatographic chamber, a variant of the plate used, a way of plate development, previous preparation of a chamber and a plate for development, a way of application of samples analyzed on a plate, composition of mobile phases used, etc. The results obtained are of interest for analytics, designers of chromatographic apparatus, physic chemists and other specialists working in the different areas of planar chromatography. Unfortunately, in the area of TLC the conditions of the experiment are described rather in detail in not more than in 20% of the articles.