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The direct toxicity of the essential oil, Ocimum basilicum L. to females of six species of predacious mites of the family phytoseiidae was tested. The phytoseiid mites tested namely, Typhlodromus athiasae Porath and Swirski, Euseius yousefi Zaher and El-Borolossy, Amblyseius zaheri Yousef and El-Borolossy, Amblyseius deleoni (Muma and Denmark), Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot and Amblyseius barkeri (Hughes). Sweet basil oil was highly toxic to females E. yousefi and was relatively intoxic to females A. swirskii. The essential oil has a close toxic effect for predator species, T. athiasae and A. barkeri. With the exception of A. zaheri, females of all predacious mites tested suffered a depression in reproduction and food consumption when treated with sweet basil oil at conc. 2%.

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Neoseiulus barkeri (Hughes) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) has been reported from Africa, Asia and Europe, often in association with Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), one of the most important pests of strawberry, cucumber and eggplant in different parts of the world. Neoseiulus barkeri is often observed for a limited time on plants in the absence of prey, feeding on alternative and supplementary foods and reaching high population levels. In this study, we test the hypothesis that various fungi (recorded in association with the host plant) could be suitable food source for the predatory mite N. barkeri . In the laboratory, we compared the developmental times, survival and oviposition rates of the predatory mite feeding on the primary food (T. urticae) or mycelium and spores of Aspergillus niger, Alternaria solani, Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum as alternative or supplementary food. Results indicated that the fungi, A. niger, A. solani and P. digitatum are adequate food sources for generalist mite survival and development. Neoseiulus barkeri was able to sustain oviposition when fed on the fungus A. niger , so it was proved to be an alternative food, conversely the predator failed to oviposit when fed on P. digitatum and A. solani , hence, both fungi can be consider as supplementary food for the predator. The fungus P. italicum is proved to be inadequate food, since most of protonymphs failed to complete its development and reach adult female. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feeding preference and the effect of food items (pest mite or fungi) commonly present on strawberry, cucumber and pepper in fields or greenhouses.

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: Phytoseiidae, Phytoseiinae). (Data to the knowledge of predaceous mites of Hungary (Acari: Phytoseiidae, Phytoseiinae).) Növényvédelem , 32 , 521 – 525 . (In Hungarian with English summary) Canestrini , G . ( 1892 ): Prospetto dell’ Acarofauna Italiana

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The relationships between the predatory mites, Typhlodromus negevi Swirski and Amitai and Typhlodromips swirskii (Athias-Henriot) (both Acari: Phytoseiidae), and their prey, tobacco whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) were investigated to determine the effects of predation on intra-guild or extra-guild prey and predator preference. Life cycle characteristics of both predatory mites were measured when fed eggs and larvae of the other predator species and compared to data obtained when the predators were fed whitefly eggs. In addition, choice tests were conducted to determine if the predators had a preference for different prey/stage or not.Typhlodromips swirskii appears to be an important intra-guild predator on T. negevi juveniles because of a high predation rate and a preference for T. negevi eggs (intra-guild prey) over whitefly eggs (extra-guild prey) when offer a choice test. Typhlodromus negevi is also an intra-guild predator of T. swirskii juveniles; it has a lower predation rate than T. swirskii. Typhlodromips swirskii had a higher predation rate on B. tabaci eggs (extra-guild prey) than on T. negevi juveniles (intra-guild prey).Extra-guild prey was an equally good or better food source than intra-guild prey/stages for both predators, based on high oviposition rates and fast development times.The results of this study indicate a potential for mutual interactions between T. swirskii and T. negevi when used together in biological control of whitefly.

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The direct toxicity of the essential oil Lavendula officinalis Chais to egg stage and adult females of the predacious mites, Euseius yousefi Zaher and El-Borolossy, Neoseiulus barkeri (hughes), Amblyseius zaheri Yousef and El-Borolossy and Typhlodromus athiase Porth and Swirski was studied. French Lavender oil was highly toxic to both stages of E. yousefi and relatively in toxic to T. athiase. A depression on consumption was recorded on A. zaheri and E. yousefi, while a depression on reproduction was reported only in case of E. yousefi, when females treated with LC25 concentration. French Lavender oil, at concentration of (LC25) was considered to be safe for A. zaheri, N. barkeri and T. athiase, since no mortalities had been recorded.

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A faunistic survey was carried out in order to monitor the occurrence of phytoseiid species in 82 vineyards located in 6 distinctive wine regions between 2004 and 2009. We have registered the habitat of the species present, and also identified the most widespread and abundant species which are the most important in limiting phytophagous mites. Twenty phytoseiid species as well as 7 species belonging to other families of the order Mesostigmata have been identified, out of which T. pyri has been the most dominant in all wine regions tested. Although the occurrence of 15 phytoseiid species has been known in Hungary before, 7 out of them have been collected in vineyards for the first time. A further 3 species have not been included in Hungarian faunistic works before this study. The species belonging to the families Ameroseiidae, Podocinidae and Ascidae are all new in vineyards, and Ameroseius pavidus (Koch, 1839) has been collected in the Hungarian fauna for the first time.

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Juvenile survival and development in Typhlodromus negevi Swirski andAmitai, Typhlodromips swirskii (Athias Henriot) and Phytoseius finitimus Ribaga feeding on con- and heterospecific phytoseiid immatures were studied in the laboratory at 28±1 °C and 70±5% RH and 16 h photoperiod. Larvae of all phytoseiids studied do not feed at all to reach the subsequent life stage. The majority (approximately 90%) of P. finitimus protonymphs cannibalizing larvae died before reaching the deutonymphal stage. Only two individuals completed juvenile development.All P. finitimus protonymphs failed to reach the subsequent stage and reach the adulthood when offered interspecificaly prey. Cannibalizing immature individuals of T. negevi and T. swirskii were able to reach adulthood. The mean developmental times of cannibalizing T. swirskii and when feeding on T. negevi larvae were similar and significantly shorter than that the former fed on larvae of P. finitimus . Cannibalizing T. negevi led to a significantly longer developmental period than the former fed interspecifically. Protonymphs and deutonymphs of T. negevi and T. swirskii ate nearly twice more of P. finitimus larvae than when fed con- or heterospecifically prey. The present study indicates that P. finitimus showed from a very low tendency to feed on conspecific prey to nontendency to feed heterospecific prey. Results show also that phytoseiid immatures are suitable prey for developing stages of some polyphagous phytoseiids. Since all 3 phytoseiids inhabiting fig trees, their immatures can be regarded as potential prey for competitive phytoseiids ( T. negevi and T. swirskii ) in time of food scarcity (eriophyid mites).

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Juvenile survival, predation and development in Typhlodromips swirskii (Athias-Henriot), Euseius scutalis (Athias-Henriot) and Typhlodromus athiasae Porath and Swirski feeding on con- and heterospecific phytoseiid immatures were investigated in the laboratory at 32 ± 2 °C and 70 ± 5% RH. Larvae of all phytoseiid studied do not feed at all to reach the subsequent life stage. More than 90% of T. swirskii and E. scutalis protonymphs preying on larvae of both heterospecific larvae reached the adult stage. The majority (approximately 98%) of T. athiasae protonymphs feeding on larvae of T. swirskii died before reaching the deutonymphal stage, while when preying on E. scutalis , all individuals reached to adulthood. The mean developmental time of T. swirskii from protonymphal stage to adulthood was 2.4 days when feeding on T athiasae and 2.2 days when feeding on E. scutalis . When protonymphs of E. scutalis feeding on larvae of T. swirskii or T. athiasae , completed juvenile development (mean developmental time 2.9 and 2.5 days, respectively).When protonymphs of T. swirskii and T. athiasae held without food, all survived approximately 3 to 4 days and then died before reaching to deutonymphal stage. Unfed immatures of E. scutalis lived longer than the corresponding stages of T. athiasae and T. swirskii (approximately 5 to 7 days). Immatures of T. swirskii and E. scutalis exhibited higher predation rates than T. athiasae when fed on heterospecific prey. Cannibalizing immatures of all 3 phytoseiid species were able to reach adulthood. The present study indicates that phytoseiid immatures are suitable prey for developing stages of polyphagous phytoseiids. Since E. scutalis, T. athiasae and T. swirskii inhabiting the same plant species, their immatures can be regarded as potential prey for competitive phytoseiids in times of food scarcity.

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The predacious mite Typhlodromips swirskii (Athias-Henriot) completed its life-span when fed on the motile stages of the mango bud mite Aceria mangiferae Sayed, the mango rust mite Metaculus mangiferae (Attiah), the leaf coating mite Cisaberoptus kenyae Keifer and nymphs of mango red mite Oligonychus mangiferus (Rahman and Sabra) in the laboratory at different temperatures and relative humidities. The increase of different temperatures and decrease relative humidities from 25°C and 60% to 30°C and 55% and 35°C and 50% shortened development and increased reproduction and prey consumption. Life table parameters indicated that feeding T. swirskii on A. mangiferae led to the highest reproduction rate (rm = 0.216 females/female/day), while feeding on O. mangiferus gave the lowest reproduction rate (rm= 0.183) at 35°C and 50% R. H. Different prey species of eriophyid mango mites, especially A. mangiferae , have a high nutritional value for T. swirskii , as a facultative predator, than the tetranychid mango mite.

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The authors give account of 5 new species, viz. Metalorryia armaghensis (Baker 1968), Neoapolorryia kristinae Momen and Lundqvist 1996, Lorryia zaheri (Baker 1968), Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor 1954) and Tenuipalpus pacificus Baker 1945, which have not been recorded so far in the Hungarian fauna.

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