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Abstract  

The study of the aesthetic genres reveals important design features of cognition, in how complex higher-order abilities are organized mentally. An evolutionary perspective frames this research in a way that considers the componential nature of language-related abilities in particular. In addition, it directs our attention to the important problem of understanding how different abilities are related. In this review of the research the focus will be on poetic and narrative abilities: (1) as they develop in children, (2) how the component sub-structures of poetry and narrative might be represented cognitively, and (3) how they may have emerged in early humans. Crucially, the analysis of component structures implies understanding how they interact in performance, and more interestingly how different abilities and faculties share competence modules and processing mechanisms in common. This approach helps put the discussion regarding the relative weight of domain-specific and domain-general structures into perspective, potentially reconciling some seemingly opposing viewpoints in evolutionary science and in the study of language development.

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. Bashyachi , E. ( 1532 ): Adderet eliyahu [The mantle of Eliyyahu]. Constantinople. van Bekkum , W. ( 2007 ): Some Thoughts on the ‘Secularization’ of Hebrew Liturgical Poetry in Pre-Modern and

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Summary

Ausonius' poetry is marked by a great deal of formal research, which takes five main aspects: metrical virtuosity, Latin-Greek bilingualism, centon, games on words, lexical elaboration. It is this last point that will hold our attention here. If the language of Ausonius is generally consistent with the classi- cal standards from the point of view of the syntax, it is not exactly the same for the lexicon. Ausonius sometimes uses late words and/or is influenced by the vulgar language. This characteristic of his language has been little studied and we must often resort to the old thesis of A. Delachaux. In this paper, we will review these late and/or vulgar words, to try to draw up a typology. We will then examine the sty- listic use that Ausonius makes of them, because, as a refined poet, he never chooses his words randomly. We will finally see if it is possible to infer some more general conclusions about the linguistic situation in Aquitania in the fourth century.

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. Percy Bysshe Shelley, "A Defence of Poetry," in Shelley's Literary and Philosophical Criticism, ed. John Shawcross (London, 1909), 154. Op. cit., 154-155. Op. cit., 155

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F. J. Child argued that it is “mainy through women everywhere” that the ballads are preserved and yet to him, as to Percy, Herder, Motherwell or Grundtvig before, women are only the mediators of an older male form of literature (heroic ballads, minstrel song, etc). The essential maternal feminity of orality is part of the German Romantic myth of origin. The 'Volk'/people had to be (kept) anonymous in order to produce 'VOLKSballaden'/popular ballads. What has come down to us in writing are very often ballads sung by women, recorded by men and presented as the 'manly', powerful, genuine ballads of the people. By arguing for women everywhere being the chief preservers of traditional ballad poetry, F. J. Child paved the way for seeking out these women locally.

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Abstract  

In Duoduo’s poetry since the mid-1980s there is a fundamental paradox which lies in the relation between the aim of his poetry, to which he refers as “Dao”, and his linguistic manipulation. For Duoduo, today’s culture is loaded with overdeveloped theories, and the creativity of poets is seriously undermined by “the invasion of knowledge”. So Duoduo employs meta-poems to express this understanding of language, knowledge, and poetry. His meta-poem often comprises not only an aesthetically constituted poem but also reflections on poetry, especially on its genesis and development in history and personal writing, as well as on how to read and interpret it. Duoduo also employs self-contradictory language to destroy the referentiality and logic of ordinary language. The language of Duoduo’s poems often incorporates great tension and drastic contradictions, which are reinforced by prosodic movements, hence it incorporates the quality of “gesture”. Duoduo’s challenge to normal modes of expressing meaning and representing experience, his pursuit of a new poetic world and linguistic paradigm are now more and more welcome by Chinese readers and younger poets.

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Gaspare Tribraco (1439 – ca. 1493) is an almost completely neglected poet despite the fact that his Bucolicon was probably the first collection of eclogues ordered in an elaborate composition during the Quattrocento. Moreover, his eclogues have survived in two different arrangements, thus offering an extraordinary possibility to analyse the humanist poet’s methods of poetry book composition. His influence was strong not only among poets who knew Tribraco personally, like Tito Vespasiano Strozzi and Matteo Maria Boiardo. The real importance and impact of his work is reflected by his influence on poets who became part of the Neo-Latin bucolic canon, first of all Baptista Mantuanus. This study is the first attempt to thoroughly analyse the structure of both eclogue collections, as well as Tribraco’s relation to classical and medieval pastoral poetry.

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This article explores Carol Ann Duffy's love poetry, arguing that language, and love itself are presented as a journeying towards the other. Language is expressive of estrangement, but also of a constant reaching out into the phenomenal world. The landscapes and scenes of these poems describe spaces where subject and object, word and thing partake of one another, albeit incompletely. The homesickness which emerges is not sentimental, but an indicator of the located nature of the self.

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Abstract  

This essay examines the images of the night in Shakespeare’s sonnets and in the poetry of Antara Ibn Shaddad. It explores how these two poets identify the night with sleeplessness, aloofness, loneliness, night birds, dreams, old age and death. Doing so, it suggests that the two poets, despite of their cultural backgrounds, and of the boundaries of place, language and time, use almost, with some differences, the same nocturnal motifs. This essay is important because it shows how different cultures follow strikingly similar, if not exactly perfect, ways of describing the darkness of nature as an echo of the darkness of the strayed soul. In the light of these strong affinities, this essay suggests two possibilities, one being the universality of these poets (Hereafter, I have, where possible, made references to some Western and Oriental poets who similarly use some image-clusters of the night.), and the other being that Shakespeare, in one way or another, may have been exposed to the poetry of Antara providing that it was translated into Latin or any other European language. No matter which one of these possibilities seems to be credible, this study tries to imply that cultures, regardless of language barriers, share some quintessential ways of expressing cultural innerness, to which researchers should pay more attention instead of being preoccupied with cultural differences as signs of clash of civilizations.

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The article aims to clarify some intricate points about the interpretation of Liszt’s Petrarch Sonnet Benedetto sia ‘l giorno throughout its many settings (manuscripts and prints). The author discusses first the problem of Liszt’s knowledge of the Italian language and metric norms, usually taken for granted; then that of the dates — of composition, of revision(s), of publication(s) — which has been covered much more widely in the literature than that of the language, but that still presents uncertainties. Taking the correspondence between the rhythm of the poem and that of the music as a means of analysis, the author suggests the cooperation of external hands in the setting of the words. Discussing the form of the piece, the paper tries to confute the various commonplaces of the literature; the difficulties inherent in the meter (the hendecasyllable) and the various ways in which its rhythm is interrupted — through repetitions, pauses and vocalizations etc. — are examined. The conclusion is that in Benedetto sia ‘l giorno the relationship between music and poetry does not reflect any particular model of lied nor of opera aria; the piece instead hints slightly to the old Italian madrigal. Benedetto is not the occurrence of a known musical form, but an example of the crisis of the form.

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