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Society and Economy
Authors:
Dominika Milczarek-Andrzejewska
,
Agata Malak-Rawlikowska
,
Jan Fałkowski
, and
Jerzy Wilkin

://dd.tradepress.com.pl/ Dries, L. — Noev, N. (2006): A Comparative Analysis of Vertical Coordination in Dairy Chains in Poland, Slovakia and Bulgaria. In: Swinnen, J. F. M. (ed.): Case Studies on Vertical Coordination in Agri-Food Chains in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

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situation of consumers based on the examples of Ireland and Slovakia. Conclusions for Poland]. Biuro Analiz Sejmowych , 38(13). Biuro Analiz Sejmowych 2010

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1 Introduction Poland, after liberation from Soviet domination in 1989, was one of the most successful post-transitional democracies in Central Europe and a solid example of a democratic state governed by law

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by VET in Hungary and Poland by discussing the following issues: historical traditions, declining prestige, governance, the involvement of social partners, and the introduction of dual training. Furthermore, we discuss the effects of the COVID-19

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. — Gajda, K. — Gilewski, D. (2005): Definition of the’ Health Benefit Basket’ in Poland. European Journal of Health Economics 6(Supplement 1): 58–65. Gilewski D. Definition of the

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. Bienkowski , W. – Weresa , M. A. – Radlo , M. J. ( 2010 ): Konkurencyjnosc Polski na tle zmian gospodarczych w krajach OECD . Ewolucja znaczenia czynników konkurencyjnosci (Poland Competitiveness against Economic Changes in OECD Countries. Evolution

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the falsification of accounting data. It is supposed that in Poland this practice has a similar scale as in other developed economies. For example, Ernst & Young in Poland presents such an opinion in their reports, but there is a lack of scientific

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overall variability, i.e., all changes in the credit stock regardless of their range. To confirm these conjectures, I used sectoral data on labor productivity of two Central European (CE) countries, Hungary and Poland. These economies offer a

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In 2004–2006 in southern Poland an investigation of the thrips fauna in altogether 78,000 flowers recorded 19 species of Thysanoptera. In the flowers of apple (Malus domestica) , pear (Pyrus communis) , sweet cherry (Prunus avium) , sour cherry (P. collina) , plum (P. domestica) and black chocoberry (Aronia melanocarpa) a total of 3748 adults (all identified to species) and 128 larvae were found. No damage to the flowers by the thrips was observed. The level of infestation of the flowers of fruit trees and berry bush by thrips was low and the relatively low number of larvae was due to the short flowering time of fruit trees. The following thrips species were eudominant: Taeniothrips inconsequens, Thrips fuscipennis and Thrips minutissimus .

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Pigeon circovirus (PiCV) is an immunosuppressive agent widespread throughout the world, which causes a disease in pigeons called Young Pigeon Disease Syndrome. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of PiCV in Poland and investigate the genetic diversity relative to other known PiCV isolates. Samples from 152 pigeon flocks (88 flocks of racing pigeons and 64 flocks of fancy pigeons) from various regions of Poland were tested by polymerase chain reaction and an approximately 326-base fragment of the capsid protein gene (Cap gene) of the virus was amplified. The average viral prevalence was found to be 70.3% (76.13% in racing pigeons and 62.5% in fancy pigeons). Among the obtained positive samples, 21 were selected for sequencing and a phylogenetic analysis was performed. It was found that the majority of Polish PiCV isolates, to varying degrees, are related to isolates occurring in Europe. It was also observed that the Cap gene is variable and mutations often occur in it, which impacts the amino acid sequences in the capsid protein (nucleotide similarity averaged 86.57%, amino acid similarity averaged 89.02%).

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