A total of 178 aerosol samples in two size fractions, PM10-2.5 (coarse) and PM2.5 (fine), were collected on nucleopore films
using a Gent stacked filter unit sampler at the Graduate School of China Nuclear Industrial Group during May 2007 to November
of 2009. Black carbon was determined by a reflectometer. A total of 16 elements, Mg, Al, S, Si, P, Cl, Ca, K, Ti, Mn, Fe,
Ni, Cu, Zn, As and Pb, were determined by Particle Induced X-ray Emission. Mg, Al, Ca, K and Mn were also determined by Neutron
Activation Analysis. Concentrations of all these elements were used to identify possible pollution sources and directions
of the airborne particulate matter by means of softwares PMF and CPF. Some extraordinary events, such as sandstorms, firework
and transboundary fire smoke were pinpointed by a combination of time series of multielement, relevant meteorological data
and softwares Wind rose, Hysplit, and Google earth.
Authors:M. Boazi, J. Gabay, S. Devir, and C. Shenberg
Aerosol samples from urban, industrial and traffic areas were collected and analyzed for various elements. The correlation
between the multielement content of the samples and their sources was studied. It was found necessary to anlayze samples before
and after ashing because, while ashing improves the peak-to-background ratio, volatile elements may be lost. Samples collected
at heights of 1.5 and 15 m were found to have the same elemental composition. Samples collected on consecutive filters showed
sharp elemental fractionation An example of source identification is given for a high traffic area as compared with an area
in which a large bromine plant is located. In both cases different Pb∶Br ratios were observed, with high bromine concentration
in the latter. The analytical method used was based on the detection of characteristic K and L X-rays induced by a241Am-I source-target assembly.
Authors:E. Garcia Agudo, S. Gonçalves, J. Francisco, and C. Shinomiya
Radium isotopes were measured in groundwater near a radioactive storage facility with contained pasty residues from monazite and industrial processing sealed in concerete reserouirs. The concentration of radium isotopes in the water was slightly higher than found in the normal drinking water. The measured228Ra to225Ra ratio in the groundwater is not compatible with calculations of radium isotopes ingrow and docay in cake II for different elapsed times, leaving mesothorium cake as the most likely source of contamination.
Evergreen oak was chosen as a possible biological monitor of environmental pollution. It was shown that there is a direct relationship between the concentration of elements in leaves and the presence of pollution sources, i.e. the density of vehicular traffic.
Samples of Spanish Moss (Tillandsia usneoides L.) were analyzed by neutron activation analysis (NAA) and inductively coupled argon plasma emission spectrometry (ICP) for trace elements as atmospheric environmental monitors. The plant material was collected at a single location in east Texas, then deployed along a 6×6 matrix gridwork in the extreme northeastern corner of the state. The study area includes several possible pollution sources including fossil fuel fired power plants. Two separate study periods were conducted, one during the summer months of 1989 and the other the following winter. Concentrations of about 35 elements were determined and contour plots for each element were pepared for each study period. Concentration ranges were found to be somewhat lower than those reported in other studies using epiphytic plants as environmental indicators. Initial correlations between elements and the possible relationships to pollution sources are discussed.
Authors:A. Montero Alvarez, J. R. Estévez Alvarez, H. Iglesias Brito, O. Pérez Arriba, D. López Sánchez, and H. T. Wolterbeek
An epiphytic lichen (Physcia alba sp.) grown over Roystonea regia tree was used as biomonitor of air quality in the Havana City west side. During the survey, 81 sampling sites were selected
according to traffic and industry conditions. The concentration for 14 elements (Mg, Al, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn,
Sr, Cd and Pb) was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV). Contents
of Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb obtained by both techniques were compared. Several biological reference materials (RM's) were analyzed
in order to assure the quality of analytical results. Some pollution sources were identified using principal component analysis.
A total of 5 factors were achieved, of which 4 could be interpreted in terms of anthropogenic pollution sources. However,
the expected correlation between traffic influence and lead concentration in lichen could not be demonstrated. The factor
values patterns are presented.
For open channels significant pollution sources during the intensive precipitations are outflows from storm-water overflows on the sewer network. When combined with low discharges in rivers, the water released from overflows can cause high concentration of pollution in receiving open channels. In this paper, the results of computer modeling of the impact of storm-water overflows on the stream water quality in three municipalities in Czech Republic are shown. The local river networks are the main receivers in the cities where storm-water overflows are led in. The results serve as a base for the proposals on the measures, improvements and structural modifications.
This article assesses the current challenges to water management in the Tisza River basin. We overview the environmental characteristics of the Tisza river basin and consider the economic setting within which water policy making must be conducted, before characterizing the principal water pollution sources in the region and assessing water quality monitoring data. We then compare the current status of the region’s waters to the normative goals for water quality improvement specified in the European Union Water Framework Directive. Lastly, we assess the future outlook for water quality in the Tisza basin, given the current status of water quality in the region and the prospects for successfully implementing water policy objectives.
Authors:A. Grimanis, N. Kalogeropoulos, M. Vassilaki-Grimani, M. Angelidis, and D. Zafiropoulos
Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) has been applied for the determination of 8 rare earth elements (REE) in sediment cores collected from stations of polluted and unpolluted areas of Northern Saronikos Gulf. The REE determined in cores are: La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Yb and Lu. Higher levels of all REE were found in the cores from polluted areas of N. Saronikos Gulf as compared with those from unpolluted areas. Different vertical profiles of REE were found in the cores from two stations of polluted areas which indicate that REE may distinguish pollution sources.
The monthly variation of selenium concentration in atmospheric particulate material of Ankara was investigated. The selenium
concentrations in possible pollution source materials like coal, fuel oil and their bottom and fly ashes were determined to
obtain the percent transference of selenium into the atmosphere. Instrumental thermal neutron activation analysis and atomic
absorption spectroscopy were applied for the analysis of selenium in the samples. Selenium enrichment factors with respect
to the fuels, soil of Ankara and crustal material were also calculated. Atmospheric selenium concentration is found to increase
during winter months and the main cause of this increase is the emission of selenium into the atmosphere due to fuel combustion.