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Absztrakt:

A szerző művelődéstörténeti kontextusba ágyazva vizsgálja, hogy az 1968-as esztendő „nagy eseményei” (gazdasági reform Magyarországon, diáklázadás Franciaországban, a „prágai tavasz” és leverése) miképp tükröződtek a hazai pedagógiai gondolkodásban és gyakorlatban. Igazolható-e, hogy a „reformista” és „ellenreformista” konfliktus mellett megjelent a „dogmatikus baloldal” és az „újbaloldal” párviadala is?

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The death of Stalin in 1953, followed by the denunciation of the cult of personality at the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in 1956, led to a certain thaw in the Soviet zones of influence. However, this was a very slow, complex process, well illustrated by the fate of the Stalin monument in Prague. After its demolition in 1962, Czech culture entered the period of the ‘Long Sixties,’ which was actually quite short. Russian tanks entering Prague August 21st, 1968 brought this exciting and promising process to its end.

This text focuses on the development of Czech Happenings and Performance Art, during this short period, questioning the political and sociological situation in which this art developed. Czech artists, both male and female, such as Milan Knížák, Eugen Brikcius, Jan Steklík and Zorka Ságlová, explored the possibilities of newly shifted boundaries between art and life.

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This paper examines the cross-pollination of the neo-Marxist critique of real existing socialism with the critical practices of the radical stream of the East European neo-avant-garde, and examines the extent to which the imprint of debates over the radical overhaul of the socialist system can be detected in the practices of artists and curators. Artistic affinities with the neo-Marxist debates that flared across the Eastern Bloc can be identified in a shared willingness to question authority, a subversive attitude to canonical thinking and a new interest in the role of an individual in socialist society. Considered also is the shift over the course of the 1970s from a belief in the possibility of a reformed socialism, to one of resignation, cynicism and frustration towards party bureaucracy, in which even the bureaucrats had stopped believing in the official ideology. This change in attitudes towards socialism is detected both in the change in tone in the writings of dissident theorists and in the approach of artists who could no longer muster the neo-avant-garde enthusiasm for the utopian desire to transform the world. The difficult paths taken by those, who sought to recover the radicalism in Marxist thought from under the blanket of state bureaucracy may also be viewed as a valuable source for contemporary social criticism of the post-communist order by a new generation of theorists and artists.

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Absztrakt:

Az esszé áttekinti, mit jelentett 1968 a politika világában Nyugaton és Keleten. Felidézi Párizs és a hasonló ihletésű német diákmozgalmak újbaloldali, anarchista gondolatvilágát, az ugyanebben az időben Amerikában kibontakozó polgárjogi és háborúellenes mozgalom törekvéseit. Szembehelyezi ezzel a szocialista Közép-Európa 68-as történetét: prágai tavasz, varsói márciusi tüntetések, magyarországi újbaloldali megmozdulások. Egy második, részletesebb áttekintés bemutatja, hogy alakult ki az ellenkultúra, milyen helyet foglalt el ezekben a mozgalmakban, hogy alakította át a politika tárgyát, színtereit és eszközeit Amerikában, majd az egész világon, és hogyan jutott el a vasfüggönyön túlra, Közép-Európába is.

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Council During the Prague Spring 1968 and its Activities until Autumn 1969) ( Svoboda 1990 ). Klepetař , H. , Seit 1918 ... ( Julius Kittls Nachfolger 1937 ). Kocích , M. , ‘Poznámky k právní úpravě školské, osvětové a spolkové činnosti

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political détente in the hope of creating a human-faced Socialism. The Prague spring ended in August 1968 when the troops of the Warsaw Treaty 19 marched into Czechoslovakia and the Soviet stood Gustáv Husák to take command of the state, blocking any

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