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litigated in the future, therefore the precaution on patent litigation is possible. Macro ( 2005 ) used several characteristics of patent, e.g. number of forward citation, number of backward citation, number of claim, as variables to create a real option

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Abstract  

The X-ray/X-ray coincidence method is an accurate and simple technique for calculating absolute disintegration rates for any125I source. The calculation of dpm (disintegrations per minute) compensates for some of the variations in125I counting efficiency caused by changes in sample volume, sample composition, container material and geometry. In the practical application of this technique there are some potential sources of error. These errors result in low dpm values and become more significant with increasing volume, increasing solute molarities, and increasing absorptivity of solutes.

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microorganism is very important because of its severe clinical presentation and the necessity of prophylactic antimicrobial usage and biosafety precautions. Acknowledgments None. References [1

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European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors: Hagen Frickmann, Thomas Köller, Ralf Matthias Hagen, Klaus-Peter Ebert, Martin Müller, Werner Wenzel, Renate Gatzer, Ulrich Schotte, Alfred Binder, Romy Skusa, Philipp Warnke, Andreas Podbielski, Christian Rückert and Bernd Kreikemeyer

precautions are enforced. Likely settings of nosocomial transmissions prior to hospital admission, e.g., during evacuation flights or in medical camps in war and crisis zones, should be further addressed in future studies. Funding sources The molecular

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European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors: Hagen Frickmann, Norbert G. Schwarz, Dorothea F. Wiemer, Marcellus Fischer, Egbert Tannich, Patrick L. Scheid, Martin Müller, Ulrich Schotte, Wolfgang Bock and Ralf M. Hagen

Abstract

This report analyzes the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp., E. histolytica, and G. intestinalis in stool of returnees from military deployments and the impact of hygiene precautions. Between 2007 and 2010, stool samples of 830 returnees that were obtained 8–12 weeks after military deployments in Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, the Balkans, Democratic Republic of the Congo/Gabonese Republic, and Sudan and 292 control samples from non-deployed soldiers were analyzed by PCR for Cryptosporidium spp., E. histolytica, G. intestinalis, and the commensal indicator of fecal contamination E. dispar. Data on hygiene precautions were available. The soldiers were questioned regarding gastrointestinal and general symptoms. Among 1122 stool samples, 18 were positive for G. intestinalis, 10 for E. dispar, and no-one for Cryptosporidium spp. and E. histolytica. An increased risk of acquiring chronic parasitic infections in comparison with non-deployed controls was demonstrated only for G. intestinalis in Sudan, where standardized food and drinking water hygiene precautions could not be implemented. Standard food and drinking water hygiene precautions in the context of screened military field camps proved to be highly reliable in preventing food-borne and water-borne chronic infections and colonization by intestinal protozoa, leading to detection proportions similar to those in non-deployed controls.

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In the past industry has developed chemicals and products, optimized for the best suitable properties concerning different application fields. Now, ideas of environmental precaution are arising, on the one hand looking for reduction of materials flow to avoid or minimize the waste, on the other hand following the idea of process and product integrated environmental protection. That means to develop processes and products which are safer and more tolerant regarding the environment and its organisms.

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Abstract  

The advantages and drawbacks of using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for soil, sediment, plant and water pollution studies are discussed. The experimental procedures used for each method and for each type of sample matrix are described. They were tested on several certified reference materials. The results obtained on these materials showed good agreement for many elements for which the two techniques are suited, and they were complementary for the other elements which are also of environmental interest. An element-by-element assessment is presented to indicate the precautions to be taken and the most convenient technique for each of them.

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Abstract  

A survey is given of the main activities of the Belgoprocess Company, with special emphasis on safety precautions. The routine sampling program for internal contamination consists of urinary and faecal sampling, among others. Faecal samples sometimes reveal low contamination levels. This contamination can be considered as low-level, frequent, and intermittent. No distinct correlation is found with another control technique.A survey is given about uncertainties that might hamper a representative sampling and/or a correct interpretation of the obtained data. Reference is made to the dosimetric models regarding complexity and uncertainties.

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Abstract

Thermal decomposition of different inorganic sulphates are presented. A number of techniques, but mainly TG and DTA, are used to prove the mechanism and kinetics of CaSO4, BaSO4, FeSO4·xH2O, Al2(SO4)3·xH2O under various gas atmospheres. It is shown how the partial pressure of gas components and heating rate may effect the mechanism and kinetic parameters. There are also examples on the effects of some additives and initial treatment on the thermal processes.

On the base of the results obtained some recommendations are given concerning the precautions to be taken into account in the thermal decomposition studies and the sulphur recovering.

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Abstract  

We are developing a scanning spectroscopy system to measure prompt gammas-rays induced by inelastic neutron scattering and thermal neutron capture to non-invasively analyze soil in situ. Using a radiation source, a 14 MeV (d,t) neutron generator (NG), in a close proximity to the detection system without any precautions will flood and saturate the detectors with direct radiation. Therefore, we devized and partially optimized a shadow shielding sited between the source and the detection system; we discuss our experimental results and basic Monte Carlo calculations.

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