relationship of H. sapiens with psychoactive plants ,” Giorgio Samorini provides a worldwide overview of what we know about the prehistory of entheogenic practices. As modern instruments become increasingly sophisticated and sensitive, they are capable of
At the northeastern part of Transdanubia, connected to the karst-water system of the Gerecse Mts, travertine pools were formed in several localities, at different times and at various altitudes. Quarrying of the travertine is documented since the Bronze Age. The hand-operated quarries are known to have also functioned during the Middle Ages. Several relics of architecture and sculpture from the Roman province of Pannonia and Medieval Hungary were made of this material, specifically from the quarries of the study area. Exploitation of the limestone opened the large, vertically-walled pools preserving the settlements of Paleolithic people in the loose sediments and the travertine cover: at Vértesszõlõs, remains of Homo erectus, and at Tata, habitations of Homo sapiens neanderthalensis were found in the travertine. Collaboration between geoscientists and archeologists could, apart from identifying the sources of worked travertine, also result in the discovery of new archeological sites.
Authors:M. Oddone, G. Bigazzi, Y. Keheyan, and S. Meloni
Obsidians from occurrences located in Armenia have been analysed using neutron activation analysis, both instrumental and epithermal, in order to enhance the knowledge of characteristics of potential sources of raw material exploited during prehistory. An alternative characterization technique, the fission-track dating method, was also applied. Results contribute to increase the data-set for provenance studies of prehistoric obsidian artifacts in the Mediterranean and adjacent regions.
Authors:J. Santos, C. Munita, M. Valério, C. Vergne, and P. Oliveira
Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), have been used for the definition of compositional groups of potteries from
Justino site, Brazil, according to the chemical similarities of ceramic paste. The outliers were identified by means of robust
Mahalanobis distance. The temper effect in the ceramic paste was studied by means of modified Mahalanobis filter. The results
were interpreted by means of cluster, principal components, and discriminant analyses. This work provides contributions for
the reconstruction of the prehistory of baixo São Francisco region, and for the reconstitution of the Brazilian Northeast
ceramist population of general frame.
Authors:Gy. Fetter, A. Szilágyi, M. Zrínyi, and A. Bóta
The thermotropic behaviour of the Synperonic A7-water (80%) system was investigated by different (SAXS, freeze-fracture, DSC) methods under the conditions of steady state and shear stress. It was found that above the melting point (about 55°C) lamellar structure exists at 80°C, which was interpreted as a consequence of phase separation. The phase separation is more extended if the sample was sheared. The shear process affects the thermotropic behaviour of the system drastically. Above the melting point the thermal treatment terminates the shear prehistory. The shear processes were executed in a shear cell constructed in two variants for small angle X-ray scattering and for freeze-fracture methods.
This paper presents a small sample of the results Creatology has achieved during its first thirty years of existence from 1977 to 2007. The main chapters below deal with the short prehistory of Creatology, its paradigmatic framework and applications. The author’s ambition was first and foremost to outline the theoretical foundation, because pragmatic work in this domain is over-represented at the expense of losing even the theoretical minimum obligatory for any scientific enterprise. The article gives also descriptions of what it calls the “Big Bang” of Creatology and the mainstream view about creativity based on the generalized market structure.
Manchu words like giranggi ‘bone’ or senggi ‘blood’ are traditionally classified as part of a nominal class system inherited from the Proto-Tungusic parent language. This nominal class system has obscure origins and it is unproductive in the historical languages (Manchu included). Manchu giranggi and senggi contain the class suffix +nggi which in historical terms cannot be easily reconciled with the so-called “collective” suffixes +ksa and +kta in Core Tungusic languages. In this contribution we argue that the class suffix +nggi is the result of the reanalysis *…V/n+g.i ⇒ …V+nggi whereby nasal nouns are reinterpreted as vowel nouns. Common Tungusic “collectives” *+kta and *+ksa are secondary formations that were created after Manchu had branched off. The general assumption is made that Manchuric (a.k.a. Jurchenic) serves best to improve our understanding of the prehistory of the Tungusic languages when it is seen as the conservative member of the family instead of the innovative one as usual.
In the investigation of the prehistory of the Yakut language only few and not very reliable sources are at our disposal. Although these sources are very important, some are not available for the researchers, or not prepared to meet modern linguistic/philological requirements. The main aim of this paper is to present the Yakut material of
, a famous work of P. S. Pallas published in 1811, for further research. In addition, etymological notes and remarks on the naming conventions of Yakuts are also included. In the appendix all the Yakut materials of the
, 135 different items altogether, are presented in a systematic way, with the comparison of data from the corresponding works of D. G. Messerschmidt and J. G. Gmelin.