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Unsuitable feed water quality causes fouling and serious decrease in membrane permeability during the operation of reverse osmosis filters, which leads to costly operation and low contaminant removal efficiency. The purpose of the experiment was to create a detailed, yet simple calculation scheme, suitable for higher education and everyday pilot experiments. The obtained formulas were calibrated against measured results, while investigating the fouling of the membranes at different iron concentrations. Pressure losses on a reverse osmosis equipment with a permeate capacity of 100 L/h were investigated for almost a year. Changes in permeability and cleaning methods were investigated with different feed water qualities.

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Pollack Periodica
Authors: Rainer Pfluger, Wolfgang Feist, and Wolfgang Hasper

laminarer und turbulenter isothermer Strömung (Calculation of the pressure losses in smooth concentric annulus gaps of non-disturbed laminar and turbulent isothermal flows), Chemie Ingenieur Technik , Vol. 79. No. 1–2, 2007, pp. 91

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Nanotechnology is a perspective manufacturing technology, and in the technical fields, it deals with the production, development and utilization of technologies and materials with dimensions in nanometre sizes (1–100 nm). Nanofilters used in the article for filtration purposes consist from a nanolayer which is applied to a coarse textile backing layer, and they are inserted into the frames as conventional textile filters. The most commonly used materials are PP and PE polymers, as well as carbon, glass and metal filters. With the fabrication of nanotechnology-based filter, it is very important to choose materials, polymers with specific properties, which can be used for filtration function of the product itself. The results given in the main article compare the nanofilters with the main representatives of existing filter products currently available on the market. There is a problem with high pressure loss of the nanomaterial, and when we compare them with traditional filters, it is difficult to use them in technical practice, even if there exists the possibility for us to define the material and the thickness of the layer which are adapted to the application-specific application conditions.

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Sanford Klein and Gregory Nellis: Thermodynamics

Cambridge University Press, 1st Edition Printed in the United States of America, 2012, 1102 pp, ISBN: 978-0-521-19570-6

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Author: Abhishek Saxena

for space heating and starts acting as a heat pump. Various performances affecting parameters are discussed (by using EES) such as: efficiency, COP, heating system performance factor, effectiveness, pressure loss, heat transfer and mass flow rate

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structures connect hydropower plants with reservoirs and lead water to the turbine units. Proper construction of intake structures ensures sufficient water flow and should ensure minimum pressure losses of the flow [ 3 , 5 ] and also prevents the formation

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pressure losses [ 2, 3 ]. Non-uniform influx causes irregular load on the turbine runner producing additional radial forces acting on the rotor [ 4 ]. The correct construction of the intake structure also prevents the formation of vortices in this area [ 5

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Tran. , vol. 2009 , no. 52 , pp. 4308 – 4316 , 2009 , http:/doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2009.03.060 . [14] A. J. Green and P. N. Smith , “ Gas flow noise and pressure loss in heavy vehicle exhaust systems ,” in Part 1: Experimental

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chromatograph (GC) directly connected to the reactor. The conversion was generally controlled to 50–70% by adjusting the catalyst amount within the permissible that to avoid the pressure loss at the catalyst bed. The reactant (1.0 μL) was introduced into the

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assumptions and parameters applied like the steady-state of the operation cycle, and ignored the pressure losses during the flow. At the saturated vapor phase, the working fluid entering the turbine, and the inlet pressure changes based on the increasing the

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may decompose them. Besides, in contrast to the previous researchers, the titania layer will be deposited on a alumina foam plate to increase the contact surface between pollutant gases and the photocatalyst surface and prevent the gas pressure loss

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