, ‘ Az ideiglenes és biztosítási intézkedések jogharmonizációs szempontú vizsgálata ’ (The analysis of interim and protectivemeasures from a legal harmonisation point of view) ( 2001 ) 4 Európai Jog 22 – 28
This paper scrutinizes various levels and aspects of Hungarian criminal law from the perspective of particularly vulnerable victims, with regard to recent EU legislation. After a short introduction, Section 2 presents and compares several notions. The following sections present protective measures and instruments of substantive and procedural criminal law as well as the key regulations of the adjoining administrative field. At the end, the questions if Hungarian legislation has fully implemented the relevant EU Directive, and what further steps should be taken are addressed.
Authors:András Vilimi, László Tóth, and Tamás János Katona
In the paper a study is presented for the case if a 10−4/a annual probability design basis earthquake would hit area surrounding the Nuclear Power Plant Paks. Although the plant can be brought to safe shutdown condition and there is no need for off-site protective measures, the plant personnel will need a minimum of logistical support from and communication with the outside area. Therefore, the knowledge of the post-earthquake situation is required for planning of the logistical support of the plant accident management and for the understanding the working conditions for disaster management services. Parameters of the case-study earthquake are selected in accordance with the design basis of the plant. Distribution of population and housing data used in this study has been obtained by population census held in 2011. The study can also help to communicate the seismic safety of the plant showing the disastrous consequences of design basis earthquake while the plant remains safe.
Authors:Márta Knausz, Gabriella Kaproncai, and Ferenc Rozgonyi
A nosocomialis fertőzések fő okozói az egészségügyi többletkiadásoknak és szoros összefüggésben állnak a betegbiztonság problémakörével is. Hatékony infekciókontrollal, szigorított higiénés intézkedésekkel, célzott szűrővizsgálatokkal a kórházi fertőzések 30%-a megelőzhető. Napjainkban a methicillinrezisztens
az egyik legfontosabb nosocomialis patogén. Az ellene történő védekezés lépései jól ismertek, ezért választottuk ezt a kórokozót költséghatékonysági vizsgálatainkhoz. Kiszámoltuk a győri Petz Aladár Megyei Oktatókórházban kétéves periódus alatt lezajlott methicillinrezisztens
okozta járvány költségeit és szembeállítottuk a szűrővizsgálatok költségeivel. Eredményeinket összehasonlítottuk a nemzetközi szakirodalmi adatokkal is. Megállapíthatjuk, hogy a szűrővizsgálatok költségei jóval alacsonyabbak, mint a kórházi fertőzések kezelésének költségei, ezért elsődleges szerepe a prevenciónak van.
The Visegrad Group, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia, which forms the core of Central and Eastern Europe once more became constitutional and democratic states as a result of the changes of 1989. The global economic and financial crisis that began in 2008 has naturally shaken up the Central European region, but the intensity of its impact varied from country to country. The period between 2008 and 2010 hit Hungary the hardest, which led to the landslide political transformation of 2010. However, the economic and financial crisis that began in 2008 did not in itself lead to a new wave of constitutional legislation in Central Europe. The creation of a new constitutional identity in Hungary with the adoption of the Fundamental Law of 2011 has more to do with the local, specific political, social and perhaps partially legal historical conditions. At this time, the other Visegrad countries can be characterised by maintenance of the constitutional status quo or only partial amendments. It is true that in these countries the turbulence caused by the crisis has not yet lead to a single party or coalition achieving the qualified majority required for constitutional reform. The situation in Poland after 2015 is still open but the new government does not have the necessary majority for the adoption of new constitution. The constitutional amendments adopted after 2008 were only a partial reaction to the great economic and financial crisis. Rather, many amendments were reflections on structural problems that had existed previously or problems arising in the course of day-to-day politics that had not been fully considered previously or they introduced long-debated and still timely changes.
Among new trends, the protective measures applicable to natural assets and waters were introduced in the interest of future generations. These were inserted in a very forceful manner into the Hungarian and Slovakian constitutional systems during the post-crisis period. The reinforcement of such an ecological identity could be interpreted as a positive development. However, the public law documents of the region are also characterised by a certain conservative ‘revolutionary’ mood including the definition of marriage as a relationship between a man and a woman; some family law measures aimed at improving demographic conditions and the passages of the Hungarian Fundamental Law concerning a society based on work. The function of constitutional courts is also beginning to be re-evaluated in the region, mainly in Hungary and Poland.
Anonymous (2004): Council Directive 2000/29/EC of 8 May 2000 on protectivemeasures against the introduction into the Community of organisms harmful to plants or plant products and against their spread within the Community
Liebmann, M.: Some data for the protectivemeasures against epidemical puerperal fever. [Néhány adat a gyermekágyi lázjárvány elleni óvintézkedésekhez.] Orv. Hetil., 1874, 18 , 536–538. [Hungarian]