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Abstract  

Radiochemical separation of Pu, Am and U was tested from synthetic solutions and evaporator concentrate samples from nuclear power plants for isolation of each of them for alpha-spectrometry analysis. The separation was performed by anion-exchange chromatography, extraction chromatography, using TRU resin, and precipitation techniques. The aim of the study was to develop a sensitive analytical procedure for the sequential determination of 242Pu, 238Pu, 239+240Pu, 241Am and 235, 238U in radioactive wastes. 238Pu, 242Pu, 243Am and 232U were used as tracers. The measurements of α emitting radionuclides were performed by semiconductor detector that is used especially when spectrometric information is needed. For synthetic solutions the chemical recovery was based on associated iron concentration and was about 93%.

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Abstract  

The basic principles and specific techniques of rapid, automated radiochemical separation techniques that use batchwize separation methods are reviewed.

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Abstract  

A procedure for sequential radiochemical separation of Se(IV), Tl(I) and Cd(II) has been developed. This procedure involves substoichiometric solvent extraction of these ions with 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (2-HMBT) under different experimental conditions.

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Abstract  

The optimization of neutron activation analysis with regard to detection limit and uncertainty of measurement using physical and chemical means is reviewed. Using selected examples it is demonstrated that radiochemical separation is the most effective means of optimization, especially in neutron activation analysis, because it yields the lowest detection limits and uncertainties.

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Abstract  

The reagent isonitrosobenzoylacetone /HINBA/ was used for the radiochemical separation of Pd/II/ employing solvent extraction. Based on various parameters such as effect of molarity of the acid, time of equilibration and effect of various solvents; the extraction coefficient value of Pd/II/ has been evaluated. The stoichiometry of the metal to reagent was determined by the substoichiometric extraction and slope-ratio method and was found to be 12.

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Abstract  

The radioactive tracer technique was used to investigate the adsorption behaviour of 47 ions onto hydrous magnesium oxide. Detailed studies on Co(II), Zn(II), La(III) and Ce(III) reveal that the adsorption isotherms of these ions obey Langmuir's law. Radiochemical separation using hydrous magnesium oxide was applied to the RNAA of NBS standard reference materials, and satisfactory results were obtained. Hydrous magnesium oxide was also used to adsorb various ions from aqueous solution for the purpose of preconcentration which was followed by NAA or ICP-AES analysis. Satisfactory results have been observed in both methods.

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Abstract  

The absorption of rhenium(VII) and tungsten(VI) ions on Al2O3 from HCl, HClO4, HNO3, H2SO4, H3PO4, NaOH, NH4OH, NaCl, NaF, and Na-tartarate solutions by batch equilibration, as well as by passage through a chromatographic column, has been studied. The results show that rhenium(VII) can be effectively separated from tungsten(VI) using any of the acid or salt solutions investigated. The experimental data allowed to develop a simple procedure for the radiochemical separation of rhenium isotopes from an irradiated WO3 sample.

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Abstract  

A radiochemical separation method was developed for the separation of 109Cd from a nat.Ag target (6.6 g, pressed into a 19 mm disc). The method comprised of two stages. In the first stage, after dissolution of the target in nitric acid, silver was separated from Cd by precipitation into the metallic form using 20 g of Cu turnings for the reduction of Ag+ ions. In the second stage, 109Cd in the filtrate, that contained trace amount of silver and substantial quantity of Cu(I), was purified by use of a Bio-Rad AG1-X10 anion-exchange resin. The ion-exchange chromatography employed a column with (1.6 cm i.d. and 4 cm length) with a flow rate of 2 ml/min throughout the separation. 109Cd was quantitatively recovered from the first stage and the recovery yield from the ion-exchange chromatography was greater than 96%. 2M HCl containing H2O2 was used for the adsorption of 109Cd and elution of Cu. 109Cd was eluted by 50 ml 1M HNO3. The concentrations of stable isotopes of Ag and Cu in the final solution (5 ml 0.05M HCl) were measured by an ICP-OES method and found to be <1 ppm.

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Abstract  

Twenty-two radiochemical separation procedures for neutron activation analysis (NAA) of environmental and biological samples are presented. They are currently applied in the context of trace metal research related to the protection of the environment and human health. The radiochemical procedures are related to the separations of the elements into groups which allow the determination of up to 50 elements in each sample or to specific separations for single elements. The experience gained in the application of these radiochemical separations over more than ten years allows us to consider them as reliable for sensitive determinations of trace metals in environmental and biological samples.

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Abstract  

14-MeV neutron activation analysis /NAA/ and radiochemical separation technique were used for the determination of Cu in Hungarian minerals. The separation of Cu from other elements is a possibility to avoid the interferences in the 511 keV -line.

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