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Condit, R., S. P. Hubbell and R. B. Foster. 1992. Recruitment near conspecific adults and the maintenance of tree and shrub diversity in a Neotropical forest. Amer. Nat. 140: 261–286. Foster R. B

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. Distribution and status of Carolina bays in South Carolina Bertness, M. D. and S. M. Yeh. 1994. Cooperative and competitive interactions in the recruitment of marsh elders. Ecology 75

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. Krohling , W. , D.S. Brotto and I.R. Zalmon . 2006 . Fouling community recruitment on an artificial reef in the north coast of Rio de Janeiro State . J. Coast. Res. 1 : 1118 – 1121

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82 Dalling, J.W. and Hubbell, S.P. 2002. Seed size, growth rate and gap microsite conditions as determinants of recruitment success for pioneer species. J. Ecol. 90: 557

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The Bolyai University was the Hungarian half of the current Babeş-Bolyai University in Cluj/Kolozsvár, Transylvania. It was an independent Hungarian University until its merger with the Babeş University in 1959. This merged institution is one of the most important centers of higher education in present-day Romania. However, it has a past that can be traced back to the 16th century within the context of the independent Translvania of John Sigismund and Stephen Báthory. It later evolved into a Habsburg institution, then a Hungarian and a Romanian University. Finally, during World War II it operated as two separate institutions with Hungarian and Romanian faculties respectively. The two were merged by the Gheorghiu-Dej communist government in 1959. Ever since, Hungarian minority intellectuals have called for the restoration of the independent Boylai University. The current paper focuses on the independent Bolyai University between 1944 and 1959. It reflects on its role as the premier institution for the recruitment and training of the Hungarian minority’s cultural and educational elite. The paper links the fate of this institution to the communist transformation of Romania and its consequences for the Hungarians of Transylvania.

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Testing the full impact of neighbourhood crowding within natural vegetation requires more than just effects incurred by established plants. It must also include measurements that take into account suppressive effects on the earliest plant life stages of resident individuals — seeds, their germination (emergence of radicles and cotyledons), and very young rooted seedlings. In this study, we explored the potential for these effects in a field experiment spanning three years, using a novel design for controlling granivory and small mammal herbivory. This allowed us to assess the limitations of natural crowding on seed recruitment success for non-resident species introduced into both natural and denuded neighbourhood plots within a temperate mesic old field meadow in eastern Ontario, Canada. Our results show that crowding by standing vegetation of resident species caused an overall reduction of seed recruitment success by more than 90%. These data provide strong inference that suppression resulting directly from near neighbour effects are likely to impose routinely intense natural selection within temperate mesic old field habitats like our study site. The consequences of this selection, in terms of traits promoting plant fitness under competition, are traditionally interpreted in terms of superior resource depletion/uptake, typically associated with greater growth accumulation and larger potential body size. We suggest, however, that these consequences are rare. Individuals of any species approach maximum potential body size only when near neighbour effects are relatively weak — not within crowded neighbourhoods. Recent studies suggest that severe neighbourhood crowding (where virtually all resident plants are forced to remain relatively small) selects instead for ‘reproductive economy’ — i.e., capacity to produce at least a few (or even at least one) offspring despite severe body size suppression, involving a relatively small minimum reproductive threshold size. Potential for additional component traits of reproductive economy are also suggested for investigation in future research.

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The species composition of the seed bank and aboveground vegetation of an old field was compared to a reference grassland stand. The relative importance of dispersal and recruitment as limiting factors was analysed, and measures for appropriate restoration are proposed. Grassland species were able to re-establish in the old field soon after abandonment of cultivation, with Stipa borysthenica as the dominant species. Five years after abandonment of cultivation, the seed bank was still dominated by weedy annuals while grassland species made a relatively high contribution to the seed bank in the reference site. The results do not support recruitment to be the limiting factor in recently abandoned fields, because grassland species that occurred in the seed bank were also present in the vegetation. A rapid regeneration of the matrix species is predicted due to their good dispersal capacity and the vicinity of the open sand grassland. However, the introduction of subordinate species and the control of invasive plants might require human intervention.

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Calamagrostis epigejos produces a large amount of litter in patches dominated by this expansive species in degraded meadows. Two studies were carried out in the area of the Central Sudetes Mountains (SW Poland). The goals of these surveys were to address the following questions: How do active manipulations regarding the removal of necromass and C. epigejos tillers, as well as seeding of additional species, influence the meadow species seedling recruitment? How is the organic matter decomposed in the consecutive stages of mountain grassland degradation caused by C. epigejos expansion? How do environmental factors influence litter decomposition? The results of the research showed a significant influence of C. epigejos necromass on the recruitment of mesic meadow species. The influence is connected with the emergence of a mechanical barrier to seedlings, which impedes their sprouting. No relation was found between the degradation stage and the rate of necromass decomposition. The study showed the influence of some environmental factors on the rate of necromass decomposition – in the case of C. epigejos there was a negative impact of exchangeable magnesium forms, whereas in the case of mixed meadow plant litter there was a positive effect of nitrogen and C:N ratio, and negative correlations with Ellenberg’s light and soil humidity indices.

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Introduction Over the past several years, the use of Amazon’s Mechanical Turk (MTurk; www.mturk.com ) for experimental- and survey-based psychological research has surged, including recruitment of clinical samples ( Chandler

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in 1982, and Ph.D. from Rutgers University in 1989. After that, he worked in UC Santa Barbara, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, ORNL, etc. In 2008, he accepted an offer of the “1,000 Plan Recruitment Program of Global Experts” from the General

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