The paper analyzed the changes of beetle assemblages in the litter layer of eutrophic pine forests in the zone polluted by a nitrogen fertilizer plant Joint Stock Company “Achema” (Lithuania). We hypothesized that abundance, diversity and life traits of beetle assemblages depend on the distance from the pollution source. The samples of the litter layer were taken from pine stands at the distances of 3, 5, 10 and 20 km from the plant. The PCA and GLM analyses were used to reduce the number of variables to the main environmental gradient and assess the influence of environmental factors on beetle abundance, number of species, and life traits. The dependence of species number, abundance and the presence of forest and dendrophagous species on the distance from the plant was detected. A significant impact of organic carbon content, nitrogen emission and moss cover on other life traits of beetles was disclosed. The abundance of moss fraction in the litter layer was positively correlated with increasing distance from the plant. The ability to tolerate polluted sites by three species: Atheta fungi, Micrambe abietis and Brassicogethes aeneus, and intolerance of pollution by eight species: Bryaxis puncticollis, Quedius limbatus, Cyphon pubescens, Cephenium majus, Cyphon padi, Cyphon variabilis, Gabrius appendiculatus and Philonthus cognatus, were detected by IndVal analysis. The distribution of litter species was affected by the distance from the plant and by the richness of moss cover.
Upgrading of the efficiency of industrial power-production systems and environmental aspects, e.g. reduction of emission of greenhouse gases, is of particular interest to the Polish power sector, inherently depending on its own coal resources and coal processing technologies. Some information on fuel suitability for particular processing technology can be obtained from its reactivity. In this paper a procedure for testing coal chars reactivity, and the results obtained, in the process of steam gasification of coal in a laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactor are presented. The procedure is based on gas chromatographic analysis of a synthesis gas produced in the process. Chemometric methods (for example as hierarchical clustering) enabled discovery of the similarities and dissimilarities of coal samples and investigation of the relationships between the reactivity of coal chars and selected physical and chemical properties important in the steam gasification process.
school should be involved in a participatory way, and collaboration with authorities, businesses, and other interested parties is encouraged. The measures concern, among others, areas like saving resources (energy, water, etc.), reductionofemissions (i