The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) seaweed Standard Reference Material (SRM4359) was developed through
an intercomparison of 24 experienced laboratories. Several statistical techniques were evaluated for establishing reference
values using the laboratories’ reported values including mean, midmean, median, Type B On Bias (BOB), Graybill-Deal, Mandel-Paule,
Vangel-Rukhin, Cox and Maximum Likelihood. After reviewing the results from all these techniques, the median was chosen as
a suitably robust way to calculate reference values. The uncertainties for the median values were estimated using bootstrap
Authors:Y. Spasova, L. Benedik, M. Vasile, M. Beyermann, U. Wätjen, and S. Pommé
In 2007/2008 the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) organised an interlaboratory comparison (ILC) on
the determination of 226Ra, 228Ra, 234U and 238U activity concentrations in mineral water. This paper describes the determination of the reference values for the activity
concentrations of 234U and 238U by radiochemical separation and α-particle spectrometry performed at two independent laboratories. The experimental uncertainty
of the reference values is discussed in detail.
Authors:Károly Vörös, Csaba Hetyey, Jenő Reiczigel, and Gábor Czirok
Baade, H., Schober, K. and Oechtering, G. (2002): Echocardiographic referencevalues in West Highland White Terrier with special regard to right heart function (in German). Tierärztl. Prax.
, (K) 172
Authors:Anna Dedousi, Maria A. Karatzia, and Panagiotis D. Katsoulos
Fornazari , G. A. , Montiani-Ferreira , F. , de Barros Filho , I. R. , Somma , A. T. and Moore , B. ( 2016 ): The eye of the Barbary sheep or aoudad ( Ammotragus lervia ): Referencevalues for selected ophthalmic diagnostic tests, morphologic and
Authors:Boglárka Vincze, Orsolya Kutasi, Ferenc Baska, and Ottó Szenci
The aims of this study were to detect physiological changes in blood biochemical parameters throughout gestation, to compare the findings in nonpregnant and pregnant Lipizzaner mares in early-mid and late pregnancy, and to provide reference values for clinical chemistry parameters in this horse breed. A total of 136 venous blood samples were collected from 20 pregnant and 10 nonpregnant (control) asymptomatic Lipizzaner broodmares for biochemical analyses. Twelve parameters (albumin, total protein, urea, triglycerides, glucose, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate transaminase, glutamate dehydrogenase, gammaglutamyltransferase, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase) were measured. For the statistical analyses, correlation, analysis of variance and Kruskal–Wallis H-test were used to evaluate the possible associations between parameters. Serum triglyceride levels proved to be significantly different in pregnant mares compared to the control group. Total protein and urea levels significantly decreased, while glucose, triglyceride and glutamate dehydrogenase values increased from approx. the fifth month of gestation until parturition. Four biochemical parameters (albumin, aspartate transaminase, total protein and urea) were lower and three other variables (glucose, alkaline phosphatase and creatinine) were significantly higher in late-term pregnant mares than in mares in early or mid-gestation. It is concluded that reference values not only reflect the species, breed and sex but also the reproductive status of animals.
In this study, bromine (Br), chlorine (Cl), potassium (K) and sodium (Na) were measured in the blood of Brazilian inhabitants
from Southeast (S) and Northeast (N) regions. A reference range was established as a function of sex and considering lifestyle
factors (non-smokers and non- drinkers). For both regions lower values of K were found in females when compared to males and
lower values of Na were found in males compared to females. Increasing trends for Na and Br were observed in the Northeast
Authors:Lea Lénárt, Marcel Taverne, Peter Wolleswinkel, Zoltán Gubik, László Molnár, and Ottó Szenci
The aim of this study was to create a fetal heart rate (FHR) reference curve for singleton bovine fetuses in the first trimester of gestation and to determine its possible relationship with the outcome of pregnancy. Forty-eight Holstein-Friesian cows with one fetus and five cows with twins were used. Fetal heart beatings were recorded on videotape during transrectal scanning with a 5 and/or 7.5 MHz linear array transducer on a weekly basis between Days 40 and 95 of gestation. FHR was calculated by averaging the results of five counts of the same record by the same observer. For singleton pregnancies, a reference curve was created using the mean, the standard deviation (SD) and the 5th and 95th percentiles. The FHR increased from Days 40–46 (173 beats/min) to Days 61–67 (183 beats/min). After a peak, the FHR decreased slowly until Days 89–95 (175 beats/min), while the SD increased. There was no significant difference between singleton and twin fetuses. in the aborted and lost fetuses in twin gestation due to fetal reduction, both bradycardia and tachycardia were detected compared to the singleton pregnancy reference curve.
Authors:A. Laissaoui, J. Abril, R. Periáñez, M. León, and E. Montaño
In estuarine environments there are important spatial and temporal changes in both salt and suspended load concentrations.
An experimental procedure have been developed to produce kinetic parameters being representative of the natural environment
studied, and we have investigated the effect of salinity and suspended load concentration to the kinetics of the uptake. These
results are encouraged by recent advances in environmental modelling concerning to radionuclide dispersion in aquatic natural
systems and involving non-equilibrium processes. Experiments are carried out with unfiltered water samples from the Odiel
estuary (Southwest of Spain), with133Ba tracer to illustrate experimental procedures.
Authors:Cibele Zamboni, Sabrina Metairon, Laura Oliveira, Simone Simons, A. Chudzinski-Tavassi, and Daniella Oliveira
The determination of elemental concentrations for Br, Ca, Cl, Fe, K, Mg, Na, S, Sr, and Zn in blood samples from White New
Zealand rabbits was performed applying the NAA technique. Twenty whole blood samples (12 male and 8 female) collected in research
centers from Brazil (Aggeu Magalhães in Recife and Butantan Institute in São Paulo) were investigated, using the IEA-R1 nuclear
reactor at IPEN/CNEN-SP-Brazil. These data can be used as references to perform biochemistry analyses in veterinary medicine
using small quantities of whole blood (100–400 μL), simplifying the collection and the preparation of biological samples (it
is not necessary to perform the serum separation nor to use specific reactants). Furthermore, the knowledge of the biochemical
values in blood allows us to check the similarities with the blood estimations in human beings, which is an important condition
for selecting laboratory animals. Finally, these data suggest a great similarity of the inorganic tissue profile of rabbits
(White New Zealand) and humans.
Authors:S. Metairon, C. Zamboni, L. Kovacs, F. Genezini, N. Santos, and E. Vilela
Neutron activation analysis has been used to determine Br, Ca, Cl, K, Mg and Na concentrations in whole blood of patients
with chronic kidney disease (CKD) as well as in whole blood of normal individuals (control group). The dependence of the elements
concentration in function of sex, age, time and type of treatment were investigated. The similarities and differences between
healthy individuals and CKD are discussed.