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were more author self-citations in the text than in the reference lists, and these self-citations served different purposes. Example 3 Example 3 provides an analysis of the references in this present paper. Here there are 19

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. Titles and abstracts of obtained articles were screened by the author. Full texts were obtained for articles deemed to be relevant and were independently evaluated for the stated eligibility criteria. Reference lists were hand-screened for additional

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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Kun Qin
,
Feifei Zhang
,
Taolin Chen
,
Lei Li
,
Wenbin Li
,
Xueling Suo
,
Du Lei
,
Graham J. Kemp
, and
Qiyong Gong

”, “sexual addiction”, “problematic hypersexual behavior”, “food addiction”, “eating addiction” coupled with “VBM”, “gray matter”, “voxel based morphometry”, “voxel-wise”. The reference lists of studies found and some high-quality reviews were investigated

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( 2003 ) found that reference lists of articles in the hard sciences included 12% of self-citations. Average self-citation rates of 10–20% in research articles are recurrent (e.g., Garfield and Sher 1963 ; Lawani 1982 ; Rousseau 1999 ; Aksnes 2003

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Abstract

The empirical question addressed in this contribution is: How does the relative frequency at which authors in a research field cite ‘authoritative’ documents in the reference lists in their papers vary with the number of references such papers contain? ‘Authoritative’ documents are defined as those that are among the ten percent most frequently cited items in a research field. It is assumed that authors who write papers with relatively short reference lists are more selective in what they cite than authors who compile long reference lists. Thus, by comparing in a research field the fraction of references of a particular type in short reference lists to that in longer lists, one can obtain an indication of the importance of that type. Our analysis suggests that in basic science fields such as physics or molecular biology the percentage of ‘authoritative’ references decreases as bibliographies become shorter. In other words, when basic scientists are selective in referencing behavior, references to ‘authoritative’ documents are dropped more readily than other types. The implications of this empirical finding for the debate on normative versus constructive citation theories are discussed.

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Summary  

In a recent paper [H. F. MOED, E. GARFIELD: In basic science the percentage of “authoritative”references decreases as bibliographies become shorter. Scientometrics 60 (3) (2004) 295-303] the authors show, experimentally, the validity of the statement in the title of their paper. In this paper we give a general informetric proof of it, under certain natural conditions. The proof is given both in the discrete and the continuous setting. An easy corollary of this result is that the fraction of non-authoritative references increases as bibliographies become shorter. This finding is supported by a set of data of the journal Information Processing and Management (2002 + 2003) with respect to the fraction of conference proceedings articles in reference lists.

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Abstract  

Citations support the communication of specialist knowledge by allowing authors and readers to make specific selections in several contexts at the same time. In the interactions between the social network of (first-order) authors and the network of their reflexive (that is, second-order) communications, a sub-textual code of communication with a distributed character has emerged. The recursive operation of this dual-layered network induces the perception of a cognitive dimension in scientific communication.Citation analysis reflects on citation practices. Reference lists are aggregated in scientometric analysis using one (or sometimes two) of the available contexts to reduce the complexity: geometrical representations (‘mappings’) of dynamic operations are reflected in corresponding theories of citation. For example, a sociological interpretation of citations can be distinguished from an information-theoretical one. The specific contexts represented in the modern citation can be deconstructed from the perspective of the cultural evolution of scientific communication.

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Summary  

This paper introduces a citation-based metholodology to characterize and measure the magnitude and intensity of knowledge flows and knowledge spillovers from the public research sector to basic and strategic research in the private sector. We present results derived from an interrelated series of statistical analyses based on Private-to-Public Citations (PrPuCs) within reference lists of the research articles produced by industrial researchers during the years 1996-2003. The first part of the results provides an overview of PrPuC statistics worldwide for OECD countries. Overall, 70% to 80% of those references within corporate research papers relate to papers produced by public research organizations. When controlling for the size of their public sector research bases, Switzerland and the United States appear to be the major suppliers of 'citable' scientific knowledge for industrial research - the value of their Corporate Citation Intensity (CCI) exceeds their statistically expected value by more than 25%. A country's CCI performance turns out to be closely related to the citation impact of the entire domestic science base. The second section deals with an exploratory case study devoted to Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, one of the corporate sector's major research areas. The findings include a list of the major citing and cited sources at the level of countries and organizations, as well as an analysis of PrPuCs as a “missing link”connection intra-science citations and citations received from corporate science-based patents.

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With reference to social constructivist approaches on citing behavior in the sciences, the hypothesis of acceleration of citing behavior after the millennium was empirically tested for a stratified random sample of exemplary psychology journal articles. The sample consists of 45 English and 45 German articles published in the years 1985 versus 1995 versus 2005 in high impact journals on developmental psychology, psychological diagnosis and assessment, and social psychology. Content analyses of the reference lists refer to the total number of references cited in the articles and the publication years of all references. In addition, the number of self-references, the number of pages, and the number of authors were determined for each article. Results show that there is no acceleration of citing behavior; rather, on the contrary, a significant trend is revealed for an increase in authors’ citing somewhat older references in the newer journal articles. Significant main effects point also at more citations of somewhat older references in the English (vs. German) journal articles as well as in articles on social psychology and psychological diagnosis (vs. on developmental psychology). Complementary analyses show that multiple authorships and the number of pages as well as the total number of references and the number of self-references increase significantly with time. However, percentage of self-references remains quite stable at about 10%. Some methodological and statistical traps in bibliometric testing the starting hypothesis are considered. Thus, the talk that has been circulating among psychology colleagues and students on the potential millennium effects on citing behavior in the sciences (which can, however, become a self-fulfilling prophecy) are not confirmed—at least for psychology journals.

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Abstract  

Median age difference (D) is obtained by subtracting median value of the age distribution of references of a scientific paper from citing half life of the journal that published it. Such an indicator can be related to the state of knowledge of research groups and can show some interesting properties: 1) it must be related with the incorporation of information pieces in an informal way, say the rate of self-citations; 2) it must follow the natural tendency of the groups towards a progressively updated state of knowledge, and 3) more productive groups will tend to use more recent information. These natural hypotheses have been investigated using a medium sized Spanish institution devoted to Food Research as a case study. Scientific output comprised 439 papers published in SCI journals between 1999 and 2004 by 16 research teams. Their 14,617 references were analyzed. Variables studied were number of published papers by every team, number of authors per paper, number of references per paper, type of documents cited, self citation rate and chronological range of reference lists. Number of authors per paper ranged between 1 and 15. The most frequent value (N = 128) was 3 authors. Average number of authors per paper is 4.03 (SD = 1.74). Mean number of references per paper (including review papers) is 33.3 (SD= 17.39) with slight differences between the groups. Mean self-citation rate was 13.72 % (SD = 11.7). The greatest chronological range was 119 years; half of all ranges was 30 years and the general mean for this variable was 33.34 years (SD = 16.34). D values were associated with self-citation rate and a negative relationship between D and chronological range of references was also found. Nevertheless, correlation figures were too small to reach sound conclusions about the effect of these variables. Number of references per paper, number of contributing authors and number of papers published by each team were not associated with D. D values can discriminate between groups managing updated information and delayed research teams. Publication delay affects D figures. Discontinuity of research lines, heterogeneity of research fields and the short time lapse studied could have some influence on the results of the study. It is suggested that a great coverage is needed to evaluate properly D figures as indicators of information update of research groups.

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