article is intended to examine the production of cancer research articles in India, and how they are divided by geographical region, by cancer manifestation or site (e.g., breast, mouth, stomach) and by researchtype (e.g., epidemiology, genetics, surgery
Authors:Francisco Collazo-Reyes, Ma. Luna-Morales, Jane Russell, and Miguel Pérez-Angón
A detailed analysis of the research carried out in Mexico in the physics specialty of particles and fields (MPPF) reveals
the way the current production and citation patterns evolved over a period of 60 years. The basis for the analysis were the
publications and citations registered in the Stanford Public Information REtrieval System—High Energy Physics (SPIRES) from 1970 to 2007. The historical coverage afforded by the Science Citation Index provided supplementary data from 1948 to 1979. Papers were classified into five research types: theoretical, phenomenological,
experimental, cosmological, and other, while citations were identified as coming from: published or unpublished sources. Results
show that the development of MPPF emerged from traditional theoretical and phenomenological research and that the most notable
changes taking place in production and impact are associated with the community’s involvement in more productive and more
internationally visible research practices, characteristic of large international collaborations, leaders in experimental
physics and in the authorship of review papers.
Information on the organization and funding of medical research were obtained by a questionnaire from 10 member countries of the European Medical Research Councils. Responses show that the ratio of medical research expenditure to Gross Domestic Product varied from 0.1 to 0.2 per cent between these countries. In many countries, the largest single source of funds was pharmaceutical industry; its share of the total expenditure varied between one and 58 per cent. Excluding pharmaceutical industry, the contribution of Medical Research Councils (MRCs) varied from 2 to 22 per cent of the remaining expenditure. The present figures, derived directly from the national research organizations, were considerably higher than the respective OECD figures.A great deal of variation between the national MRCs in the distribution of funds by field of research, type of activity, and type of cost was observed. The average cost of a research project varied between 4800–97000 U.S. dollars. The variation is probably explained to a great extent by availability of other sources of funds.All MRCs used peer review in the assessment of research proposals. Criteria for peer review varied much. Only two MRCs mentioned specifically the needs of the society among the criteria. The various medical research organizations are described in detail in this report.
The paper presents a research that was focusing on the ideal entrepreneurial attitude, on the one hand, and personality traits that make an individual successful, on the other. The sample was chosen randomly, consisting of 670 respondents who were entrepreneurs not only from an administrative-legal point of view but also in a psychological sense. Asset index (AI) and turnover index (TI) were used as economic indicators of success, while CPI was applied for the examination of personality traits. Two types of successful entrepreneurs were distinguished by the researchers. Type A entrepreneurs (high AI factor value) were found to attach importance to increasing the value of fixed assets in their business activity. Their personality is characterized by increased dominance, endeavor to take a leading role, increased motivation for achievement and success, ability to achieve high social status, self-confidence, ability to exert social influence effectively, and strong aspiration to present themselves in a favorable light. The business activity of Type B entrepreneurs (high TI factor value), is characterized by a high level of self-knowledge, satisfaction with their social status and role, increased need to meet community expectations, good adaptation and accommodation skills and a strong ability to shape social relations, endeavor to increase net profit (earnings).
can be reflected in the parameters of their return distribution. On the whole, all projects can be classified into two major types, i.e., research-type investment and development-type investment (Carter and Edwards 2001 ). Generally, because the
Authors:Geert Vanden Poel, Daniel Istrate, Agnieszka Magon, and Vincent Mathot
Apart from practical applications, also for researchers—in the field working at the more fundamental side of the research-type spectrum—it is of great interest to have the capability to apply a variety of scan rates—from slow to fast and in both cooling
Authors:Seongkyoon Jeong, Jae Young Choi, and Jaeyun Kim
companies. The value of the external fund ratio ranges between “0” and “1.” If it is “0,” it may mean the project has no funding source except government.
The technology development level is used as well. Valuing the researchtype would be very