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“But if we died with Christ, we believe that we shall also live with him… For the death that he died, he died unto sin once: but the life that he liveth, he liveth unto God.” The antithesis in the Epistle of Paul to the Romans enjoyed great popularity in medieval literature, specifically amongst monastic authors. Dezső Pais and János Bollók observed a striking parallel between the biblical passage and the conclusion of the Gesta Hungarorum. János Győry explained the resemblance with the literary impact of the 12th-century Gesta consulum Andegavorum on the anonymous author of the Gesta Hungarorum. On the other hand, the quotation could have been borrowed from a letter by Paulinus of Nola. Another source from early medieval Hungary, the arenga of the charter of hermit Andreas (1130-1140) contains a paraphrased version of the passage, now openly articulating monastic ideals: Ut mortuus seculo, solus soli viveret Deo. The same wording was preserved in a homily for the feast of Saint Blaise attributed to abbot Gottfried of Admont (dG1165) and an antiphon which represents a liturgical tradition originating in Rheinau. Considering the 12th-century political relationship between Admont and Hungary, it is very likely that the charter of Andreas testifies about the impact of the Admont school on Hungarian monasteries.

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The conflicting assignments between modes 3 and 8 is found not only among sources, but also within a single source through erasures and revisions in different hands. Here the modal assignments of office antiphons are examined through a comparison of the sources of the monasteries in the region of Lake Constance. They are from the monasteries of Einsiedeln, St. Gallen, Rheinau, Weingarten, and Zwiefalten. For a singer, the most important matter in singing antiphons was not to end the melody on a specific note, but to select a suitable reciting tone. At a time in which musicians classified antiphons into several “differentia” groups, what characterizes each differentia group is surely the melodic incipit and the psalm tone. But over the course of time, medieval musicians became to consider the concept of mode, that is, the classification by the final note and range, and at that time the ending of the antiphon gained in importance. This change of thinking gave rise to the modal conflicting assignments.

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