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Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of the extracts of sumac (Rhus coriaria) fruits and cassia (Cinnamomum cassia) cortex were studied. Plant samples were extracted with methanol:water (80:20) and an aliquot of each extract was fractionated using n-hexane and ethyl acetate. Antioxidant activities of n-hexane, ethyl acetate and water fractions were measured using Fe+2 induced linoleic acid-TBA-peroxidation reaction and the Rancimat methods. Free radical scavenging activities of the fractions were determined on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH). Results were compared with those for butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). The ethyl acetate fraction of plant materials exhibited a marked antiradical activity on DPPH .

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The main target of this study was to measure the influence of sumac juice drink on muscle indices and pain during an acute, intense exercise for 30 days. Forty healthy volunteers (15–25 years) were involved in aerobic exercise program for 4 weeks. Participants ingested sumac juice or placebo drink twice daily for 30 days. All participants were subjected for the evaluation of pain and estimation of serum: creatine kinase (CK), lactic acid dehydrogenase (LDH), troponin I, hydroxyproline (hyp), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and in vitro antioxidant activity of sumac juice using pre-validated visual analog scale, colorimetric and immunoassays. The participants of both groups, placebo and sumac, showed an increment in pain scores both during exercise and post-exercise intervals. However, the sumac juice group showed a significant smaller increase in the pain scores compared to the placebo group. Participants in the sumac juice group were more willing to use the drink in the future. They achieved a higher satisfaction of sumac juice in ameliorating and the reduction of pain. Also, the sumac group showed a significant enhancement in the level of CK, LDH, troponin I, hyp, along with significant increase in serum (TAC) compared to the placebo group. The protective activity of muscle may relate to the antioxidant activity of phenolic component(s) in sumac juice as measured by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging (87.9%) and β-carotene–linoleic acid (68.7%) assays. These data suggest that oral administration of sumac juice may have a beneficial effect on muscle performance among athletes.

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OSI values of Rhus coriaria var. zebaria have been reported as 7.342, 5.170, and 0.071, respectively ( Mohammed et al., 2018 ). In another study, TAS values of Calendula officinalis were reported as 5.55 ± 0.41 ( Verma et al., 2016 ). Compared to

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