A historical approach to plant pathology has been provided on the basis of textual evidence. Roman writers on agriculture, i. e. Cato, Varro, Virgil, Pliny the Elder and Columella, have been revised, with the aim of identifying some of the plant diseases spread in the Roman Age. Rust disease of cereals was the most frequently reported, besides grape rot, root rot of fig trees and rue plants, wood decay of holly oak and, probably, Esca disease of grapevine. Insects and weeds were occasionally cited. The recorded data have been briefly discussed and compared to Greek and Biblical textual sources, while archaeological evidence has been presented to support them, although pertaining to a prehistoric context.
This article publishes all earlier archaeological data on the watch-towers of the Szentendrei-sziget and compares with the Roman age of other islands of Danube in Hungary. The age and function of the sites are questionable, without new investigations it cannot be determined whether they belong to the Roman or the Middle age.
A közlemény a Budapest területén számon tartott római kori őrtornyokra vonatkozó korábbi szakirodalmi adatokat és az újabb kutatások eredményeit veti össze annak érdekében, hogy pontosan meghatározható legyen a maradványok kora és rendeltetése.
Twenty Roman Age home-made sherds from Central Italian San Potito locality were studied by petrographic microscopic method. The ceramics were divided into five petrographic groups on the basis of their composition and structural-textural features. Two groups of the ceramics were tempered with clasts of alkaline volcanic origin, which seem to originate from Central-Italian volcanic territory components. The ceramics belonging to the other three groups contained large amounts of limestone and carbonatic fossils, the origin of the raw material was a marine clayish sediment, perhaps flysch.
Authors:A. Duran, L. Perez-Maqueda, J. Poyato, and J. Perez-Rodriguez
Roman ancient mortars have been widely studied, in connection with both diagnosis and application required for restoring.
Thermoanalytical experiments performed on mortars from Pompeii and Herculaneum provided a very good understanding of the technology
employed. The mortars from Pompeii were obtained by the proper mixing of lime and marble grains while mortars of Herculaneum
by lime and silicates compounds. The position of the endothermic peak of calcite decomposition showed important variations
in the different samples studied, which was assigned to the different crystallinity and particle sizes. Experiments under
CO2 flow confirmed the presence of magnesium calcium carbonates.
At the northeastern part of Transdanubia, connected to the karst-water system of the Gerecse Mts, travertine pools were formed in several localities, at different times and at various altitudes. Quarrying of the travertine is documented since the Bronze Age. The hand-operated quarries are known to have also functioned during the Middle Ages. Several relics of architecture and sculpture from the Roman province of Pannonia and Medieval Hungary were made of this material, specifically from the quarries of the study area. Exploitation of the limestone opened the large, vertically-walled pools preserving the settlements of Paleolithic people in the loose sediments and the travertine cover: at Vértesszõlõs, remains of Homo erectus, and at Tata, habitations of Homo sapiens neanderthalensis were found in the travertine. Collaboration between geoscientists and archeologists could, apart from identifying the sources of worked travertine, also result in the discovery of new archeological sites.
Authors:Isztin Gyula, Tárczy Tamás, and Tóth Endre
The western part of a Late Roman palace, including a large, undivided hall, was excavated in Szombathely between 1938 and 1943. The floor of the apsidal hall was lavishly decorated with mosaics, while the wall footings were covered with colourful marble slabs. The construction of the palace was no doubt begun in consequence of the administrative changes during the Tetrarchy, when Savaria became the seat of the praeses. The architectural history of the palace suggests that the mosaic floor could not have been made before the 350s. It seems likely that the hall had been constructed as part of the preparations for Valentinian I’s visit to Savaria (374–375). However, only the excavation of the successive levels of the mosaic floor and the assessment of the finds can provide a more accurate date.
Authors:Beáta Tugya, Katalin Náfrádi, Sándor Gulyás, Tünde Törőcsik, Balázs Pál Sümegi, Péter Pomázi, and Pál Sümegi
RomanAge and Migration Period were sampled at 2 cm intervals for sedimentological and water-soluble elements content, while the Pleistocene and Early Holocene bedrock level at 4 cm intervals. In the bedrock between 300 and 240 cm yellowish-grey (Munsell
The aim of this paper is to investigate the role of Anubis as a member of the “Isiac Family” (Isis–Osiris/Sarapis–Horus/Harpokrates–Anubis) during the Hellenistic and Roman age. A new religious-historical analysis allows us to detect more or less profound changes of Anubis' ancient religious meaning due to the transfer from Egypt to Greece and Rome. The spread of this cult from its motherland to the Hellenistic world and subsequently to the Roman Empire caused, as well, the creation of its new religious identity.