This paper examines the importance of the lituus on Augustan provincial coinage. On local coins of some thirty cities in Africa and Asia, Augustus’ obverse portraits are accompanied by a lituus, the symbol of the augurs. One of Augustus’ most important priestly offices was that of an augur. Romulus’ most famous achievement as an augur was the foundation of Rome. When Augustus became an augur in 43 BC, it was particularly Romulus’ role as a founder that Augustus emulated the most. Augustus considered himself to be the second founder of Rome, and also founded, re-founded, and reorganized numerous cities in the Roman provinces. I argue, then, that given the far-reaching evidence of the lituus on Augustan provincial coinage, the prominence of Augustus’ position as an augur is not only evident through his provincial (re)foundations, but also through his visual imagery.
The past was reinvented in the Augustan culture through true or fictitious archaic cults, and this paper deals with some priesthoods related to sacred groves, or with the iconography of sacred luci appearing in some coins. Some examples are considered, such as an inscription from Peñaflor/Celti (Seville) mentioning a pontufex nemoris, a reference to the eques P. Aelius Marcellus, who appears in an epigraph from Umbria not only as Laurens Lavinas but also as flamen lucularis, or some images that document the reception of ancient notions of the sacred groves in the Roman provinces, as some recurrent types in the coins of Juba II of Mauritania depicting trees with an altar between them and the legend Lucus Augusti show. The question of whether these manifestations are merely expression of loyalism to the Emperor or whether they might imply some kind of local tradition is also posed.
This paper intends to investigate Greek influence on the Latin sound change [b] > [β] suggested occasionally in the literature by surveying not only the relevant linguistic data of Latin/Romance and Koine/Modern Greek but also the relevant literature and by involving and analyzing data sets recorded from 18 Roman provinces and the city of Rome in the Computerized Historical Linguistic Database of the Latin Inscriptions of the Imperial Age (cf. http://lldb.elte.hu/) by a more differentiated phonological approach considering external sandhi rules and in a chronological distribution more detailed than any applied before. In the end, the influence of Greek has been evidenced at least for some areas and especially for the early period (1st–3rd century AD), which is more important in this respect than the late period (4th–6th century AD), since then the merger can also be explained by developments in Latin itself beside a supposed external influence.
The study presents the history of the Jesuit missions led to Ottoman Hungary, summarising the conclusions of the author’s earlier research. After long decades of a preparative phase, the Jesuits settled down in Ottoman Hungary in 1612. In the beginnings, the mission stood under the authority of the Austrian and Roman provinces. The southern stations, Belgrade (1612–1632) and Temesvár (Timişoara, 1632–1653) belonged to the latter province. The missions of Pécs (1612–1686–1773), Andocs (1642–1684), Kecskemét (1633–1635) and the residence of Gyöngyös (1633–1682–1773) worked under the authority of the Austrian provincial. The stations counted 2–3 Jesuits, whereas in Gyöngyös 3–6 religious were active at the same time. In spite of the low number of missionaries, the activity of the Jesuits had an inestimable impact on religious and cultural life as well as on the conservation of national identity. Stations assisted in the pastoral care of the local parishes led large-scale missions well beyond the boundaries of the parish and maintained schools. In Transdanubia, the Jesuits were practically the only priests who took spiritual care of the population. The Gyöngyös grammar school was the only institution of secondary education under Turkish occupation; it was attended also by students from the Hungarian Kingdom. The fathers brought the spirit of the European Catholic reform to the Ottoman territories.
Authors:Francesca Ceci and Aleksandra Krauze-Kołodziej
The myth of Orpheus experienced a great popularity in ancient world, covering the path from a mythical legend to a complex and sophisticated mystic cult. There were many various features of Orpheus that characterized the Thracian singer, being the result of his different adventures: from the quest of the Argonauts and the pathetic story of love of Eurydice, to his journey to the underworld.
The myth of Orpheus was highly represented in iconography. The most frequent representations are those showing Orpheus as a singer surrounded by the beasts and, in smaller amount, in the scene representing the story of descent to the underworld in search of Eurydice. Numerous images connected with the legend of Orpheus, dating from the Classical times to Christian era, are the proof of a wide influence of the mystery cult of Orpheus on ancient and late antique culture.
This paper aims to present an overview of ancient coinage iconography representing Orpheus. Various motives considering the story of Orpheus appear on one of the most powerful means of propaganda – the coins, particularly from the Roman provinces, that were easily able to reach a wide audience. In the limited space of coins, the engravers could highlight effectively the most important and popular events from the story of Orpheus.
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