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It is not surprising, given that the Ab urbe condita is an important source of information about Roman religious practices, to find frequent mentions of Juno’s shrines or cults in Livy’s work. Yet, we have to ask ourselves to what extent this religious data has been rewritten and recomposed according to the Roman historiographical tradition in order to provide the audience with a particular view of Roman history. A further study allows us to distinguish two kinds of Junones: Roman and Italian Junones who stood as a protective goddess of Rome, on the one hand, and on the other, Junones from the borders of the Roman world, who supported or questioned Rome’s identity and its Empire’s guiding principles in the historical narrative.

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conquest of Pannonia and its organisation as a province . In: Early Geographers–The Period of the Roman Conquest . Ed.: B. Fehér , P. Kovács . Fontes Pannoniae antiquae 1 . Budapest 2005 , 198 – 209 . P. Kovács : A History of Pannonia during

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Through literary sources of the time of the Principate, one can find remains of the official discourse and debates on the Roman conquest. The long-standing tension between the imperial expansion or stabilization was linked to an old tradition, related to the image of the collapse of Rome under its own weight, but it was updated when Augustus established the Principate and tried to give it longevity.

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If one needs to obtain some information on the Roman conquest of Pannonia, his job seems to be easy: he has just to read both the ancient sources and many a modern work about this issue. But there are three problems: 1) the Greek and Latin sources are scanty, very poor in details and sometimes misleading; 2) the modern scholars often echo and deepen the errors of the ancient sources while adding other mistakes of their own; 3) mainstream opinions as well as minority views about Pannonian ethnography are premised on false or faulty assumptions and distort further our understanding of the historical events. This paper wants to correct both ancient errors and modern ones. Its author tried to reconstruct a coherent and clear picture of bellum Pannonicum in 12-9 BC; he also aimed at throwing new light on the ethnic composition of the Pannonian tribes.

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contrast, for Pannonia, a territory conquered over several different phases, the scenario appears to assume more complex characteristics. As the famous Hungarian scholar Jenő Fitz pointed out, 13 the debate about the Roman conquest of Pannonia is still far

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have Late Iron Age antecedents so they must have arrived in the province after the Roman Conquest. The origin of cremation rites linked with trenches can be found in Italy and the army recruited in Italy and merchants could help in their diffusion. He

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. 11 Wherefrom did we get the knowledge about the formulae of the Celtic oath? The Celtic culture until the Roman conquest of Gaul in the 1 st century BC was an overwhelmingly oral culture. The Gallic druids knew the Greek

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transcriptional uncertainty, and said that the phenomenon can be seen as a striving for a better reflection of the original pronunciation. With the Roman conquest, the cult underwent a major transformation, and the Dolichenus epithet appearing after makes it clear

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. Conant , J. ( 2012 ). Staying Roman: Conquest and identity in Africa and the Mediterranean, 439–700 . Cambridge studies in medieval life and thought: fourth series, 82

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Roman conquest as evocatio made possible the departure of enemy gods from this place to Rome – if necessary, as we will see later – or simply allowed the enemy gods to stay in their city, after having accepted Roman domination and a new juridical frame

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