Through a careful examination of the accounts of Daqin (大秦) — presumably the Roman Empire — and Fulin (拂菻) — Byzantinum —, we can depict a picture of how the Chinese imagined another ancient empire far away in the West. The Chinese annals not only give information on and the interpretation of the name of that mysterious country but also add details about its geography, administration, economy — including agriculture, domesticated animals and products -, trade and the envoys sent by Daqin (大秦) people. Such a description could be remarkable on its own but the accounts also emphasise the similarities between the two great empires that might have originated in their same cultural level.
This study attempts to determine the common features and differences between the Latin language of the inscriptions of Aquincum, Salona, Aquileia and the provincial countries of Pannonia Inferior, Dalmatia and Venetia et Histria, compared with each other and the rest of the Latin speaking provinces of the Roman empire, and we intend to demonstrate whether a regional dialect area over the Alps–Danube–Adria region of the Roman empire existed, a hypothesis suggested by József Herman. For our research, we use all relevant linguistic data from the Computerized Historical Linguistic Database of Latin Inscriptions of the Imperial Age. We will examine the relative distribution of diverse types of non-standard data found in the inscriptions, contrasting the linguistic phenomena of an earlier period with a later stage of Vulgar Latin. The focus of our analysis will be on the changes in the vowel system and the grammatical cases between the two chronological periods within each of the three examined cities. If we succeed in identifying similar tendencies in the Vulgar Latin of these three cities, the shared linguistic phenomena may suggest the existence of a regional variant of Latin in the Alps–Danube–Adria region.
About 620 the Emperor Heraclius succeeded in concluding a temporary peace with the Avars and concentrating his forces exclusively on the struggle with Persia. In 622, during the first great offensive, the tactical and military maturity of the Eastern Roman army was demonstrated for the first time. However, Heraclius still could not use the strategic initiative enough in this period. The complicated relations with the Khagantae forced the Emperor to return to Constantinople and begin negotiations for a new peace treaty. The planned meeting with the Khagan of the Avars almost ended in a personal catastrophe for the Emperor. Regardless of this incident, both sides had an interest in concluding peace. While the Romans needed to continue the war with Persia, the Avars had to devote attention to stabilizing the situation in the Khaganate after the outbreak of Samo’s revolt. The agreement reached at the turn of the years 623/624 lasted until the Avar siege of Constantinople in 626.
It is not surprising, given that the Ab urbe condita is an important source of information about Roman religious practices, to find frequent mentions of Juno’s shrines or cults in Livy’s work. Yet, we have to ask ourselves to what extent this religious data has been rewritten and recomposed according to the Roman historiographical tradition in order to provide the audience with a particular view of Roman history. A further study allows us to distinguish two kinds of Junones: Roman and Italian Junones who stood as a protective goddess of Rome, on the one hand, and on the other, Junones from the borders of the Roman world, who supported or questioned Rome’s identity and its Empire’s guiding principles in the historical narrative.
. Magic was practiced in many forms, from the use of official oracles to necromancy, and such practices were common across the various territories in the RomanEmpire. There is evidence on the island of the use of official oracles, consulted throughout the
Empire. AJPh 87 (1966) 1–17; J. Clackson: Language Maintenance and Language Shift in the Mediterranean World during the RomanEmpire. In: Multilingualism in the Graeco-Roman Worlds . Eds. A. Mullen – P. James. Cambridge (2012) 36–57. 2 A. K. Bowman
It is a well known fact that the system of the official communication of the Roman Empire had undergone a striking change after Diocletian’s accession (284): Latin came into prominence and was used exclusively in the Eastern imperial administration where Greek had played an important role before Diocletian. So far this prominence of Latin has commonly been interpreted as an effect of a radical change in the language policy of the Roman state, claiming that Diocletian and Constantine I had introduced a new intolerant and aggressive language policy in the framework of the rehabilitation of the Roman Empire. In my paper I try to demonstrate that this alleged aggressive language policy never existed and that the prominence of Latin in the Eastern part of the Empire spontaneously resulted from the bureaucratic and governmental transformation of the Roman Empire that significantly increased the prestige of the Latin language.
found on Euboea (Styra) and one comes from Sicily (Kamarina). In the Romanempire, the mother's name starts to predominate from the 2nd century AD onwards. This is also true for Greek and Latin tablets.
One hundred and fifteen Latin and Greek
During the Roman Empire, when an autonomous Etruscan culture had disappeared long ago, aspects of the old Etruscan religion were still surviving and had been integrated in the Roman traditional religion: the haruspices, acting as diviners for public or private purposes all over the Roman empire, could interpret prodigies, what Roman priests and even augurs did not. When, with the Christians, a new religion arrived which risked to overthrow the old national religion of the Romans, Etruscan religious tradition played an important role against the rise of Christianity: with the sacred books of the Etruscans, with the prophets who were alleged to have created the Etruscan religious tradition, the Romans could find in their own heritage what could match the Bible of the Christians or their prophets. Unsurprisingly, haruspices were active in the resistance movement against the new religion.