Based on the presence or absence of the various groups (early Romanpottery, glazed, smoothed-in, new, 5th century pottery), I tried to distinguish pottery groups within the fort’s material. 13 This also meant chronological differences. Sometimes the
Mortaria were used in Pannonia in the entire Roman period, but they changed in form and material from time to time. Potter’s stamps indicate that some of them were imported goods, but they were mostly local products. The article deals with mortaria found in Zalalövő (ancient Salla) between 1973 and 2005 and tries to draw a picture of the chronology and the provenance of the different
Numerous notable potters’ waste layers came to light during the recent excavation of a detail of the military pottery workshop (so-called’ Kiscelli Street workshop’) in the Aquincum canabae.A distinctive quality ceramic group was separatable in these layers. These ceramics have well, fine levigated clay and were fired to red and hard. The surfaces are glossy by burnishing or a very thin slip. These sherds measure in many cases up to the Samian ware quality. As geochemical researches revealed these ceramics were made from local clay into which some „red earth” (rich in Al2O3-, Fe2O3- and MnO) admixture was mixed. Moreover it was also observed that the above-mentioned good quality product forms were sometimes made in a „traditional” (without red admixture) colour, too.We can find the best analogies of these ceramics in connection with the finds of the legionary pottery’s find-places (Noviomagus-Holdeurn ware, Vetera, Vindonissa, Argentorate, Wetterau ware, Butovo etc.). These are in the closest connection with the Holdeurn ware in both form and quality (four of the five forms are almost identical). Based on the similarity we think that potterers from Noviomagus might have been commanded here, which is naturally not surprising knowing that the legio X Gemina was placed from Noviomagus to Aquincum in 105 AD and was stationed here till 118 AD. At the same time, researching the origin of the existing forms we find many similarities with the eastern Samian ware (terra sigillata) forms, too. This raises the question who were those potterers that developed these forms first? Though J. K. Haalebos suggested the presence of Italian potterers in connection with the Holdeun pottery, the possibility of eastern potterers’ contribution can also be taken into account.
A római kerámia füstölők funkciójának kérdése régóta vitatott. A zalalövői füstölőtál-anyag feldolgozása során nyert információk, valamint az ókori források alapján megcáfolható, hogy a füstölőket olajlámpaként, libációs edényként, gyümölcsöstálnak vagy virágcserépnek használták volna. A turibulu-mok a római háztartás alapfelszereléséhez tartoztak (Liv. XXIX,14,13), és az égésnyomok alapján a házi isteneknek rendszeresen bemutatott füstáldozatra szolgáltak. Nevük a leggyakrabban füstölt anyagból, a tömjénből ered, amelynek égetése a kultikus célokon túl praktikus előnyökkel is járt. A kereszténység terjedésével párhuzamosan a füstölőtálak eltűntek a római életből, mivel a keresztények a füstölés szokását pogány cselekedetnek tartották, és teljes mértékben elutasították.
A large number of fragments of ancient roman pottery has been analyzed for main constituents, minor and trace-elements using
high-energetic photon activation analysis followed by high resolution gamma spectroscopy. Especially the environmental influence
on the concentrations of the minor constituents and trace elements during deposition of the sherds in the soil has been examined.
Finally, a comparison has been made between analysis data of ancient pottery obtained by photon activation analysis, X-ray
fluorescence analysis and 14 MeV-neutron activation analysis.
To study the nature of ancient and modern pottery it is necessary to be able to determine the concentrations of the major
constituent elements. For such studies, mass balances calculated from these elemental concentrations cluster around 100% for
a silicate-silica matrix and around 80–90% in highly calcarious pottery which has a silicate-carbonate (silica) matrix. This
work requires experimental measurements with coefficients of variation wihtin approximately ±5%. The high concentrations of
silicon in pottery may reasonably be determined by neutron activation analysis using the nuclear reaction29Si(n, p)29 Al. Aluminium-29 has a half life of 6.56 minutes and a γ-ray energy of 1272 keV. Epithermal neutron irradiations of samples
in cadmium foil are required to minimize the quantities of thermal neutron induced radionuclides. The method of analysis developed
for the low flux SLOWPOKE reactor is described and the accuracy and precision of the technique is discussed by allusion to
analyses of standard reference materials. The application of this technique to two different archaeological problems is addressed.
The first is a case of carbonate dilution found in neolithic pottery from Iran and the second case is a problem of silica
dilution in Roman pottery from Germany.
T. Szönyi E. 1981 Korarómai fazekaskemencék Mursellában (Early románpottery Kilns in Mursella), In: Iparrégészeti kutatások Magyarországon (Industrial Archaeology. Kilns and furnaces), Szerk. Gömöri, J. Veszprém, 19