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The status of clitic or conjunctive pronouns of Romance languages is a highly debated topic in linguistic literature. A number of articles dedicated to this issue propose to analyse clitic pronouns as affixes that have lost their syntactic autonomy, whereas others assert that they are syntactically accessible arguments of the verb. This article focuses on the exposition and study of clitic pronouns in the francoprovençal dialect of Pélussin from the perspective of their syntactic and morphosyntactic properties. We conduct a survey of the criteria usually employed to distinguish between affixes and clitics, in order to attempt to determine how the clitic pronouns of this patois should be analysed. We conclude that the dialect of Pélussin is very similar to colloquial French from this point of view, hence it follows that the analyses put forward previously for the latter also apply to the dialect presented herein.

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This paper focuses on some problems that emerge in the analysis of Latin partitive structures of various times and in the study of their diachronic relationship to Romance partitive structures. It especially deals with constructions of the form V + NP (with NP marked by the Genitive Case or governed by the preposition DĒ) which are examined in their formal and functional properties. Starting from a critical reconsideration of how they are described in various prominent grammars and studies, this paper underlines their non-homogeneous character. In particular, it casts doubts on the association of some of the constructions with V + Genitive NP to partitive function. As to the structures with NP governed by DĒ, it is argued that in the sample of sentences considered, which includes passages from Plautus, Cicero, Martial, Petronius, the preposition fundamentally retains its original value that expresses spatial movement from a place (physical or mental), and therefore assigns to the prepositional phrase a function of spatial origin that is inextricably interwoven to a possible partitive value. This brings to the conclusion that the spatial value may have been a main path to the development of the partitive function in the constructions with DĒ.

This paper also questions the equivalence of the constructions with NP marked by Genitive and those with NP governed by DĒ. It comes to the conclusion that no direct functional continuity from the first to the latter can be envisaged if one accepts the traditional typological description whereby the structures with DE gradually came to replace those with the Genitive. However, some Late Latin constructions with DE show formal and functional similarities with the older Romance partitive constructions.

The influence of Greek on Latin is discussed as a possible factor that affected the shaping of Latin partitive constructions over time, though it is arguably difficult to prove it in a satisfactory way and this issue deserves further research.

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The paper discusses the Gul u Navrūz romance cycle, presenting its reception history in Čaġatay and Ottoman literature. Comparing the elaborations of this picaresque mystical love story, it tries to understand (1) what might have appealed to poets to write their own version of it, (2) how the story found its way from Persian into the Čaġatay and Ottoman Turkish literary canon, (3) how it disappeared from court literature, to resurface in East Anatolian folk literature, and (4) what the aesthetic concepts of the individual authors were and how they differed from one another. Also elaborated is the interrelation of Persian and Turkish literature on the one hand, and of Ottoman and Timurid literature on the other.

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In this study the autor provides a survey on the interaction between English and the Latin, French, Italian, Spanish and Potuguese is analyses chronologically, with a special regard to the phonological modifications of loan-words. 

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Abstract  

En 1999, Ahmadou Kourouma a reu le prix Inter pour sa satire, son chef d'œuvre satirique et caustique des dictatures africaines, En attendant le vote des btes sauvages. C'est avec la męmeverve, le mme chatoiement de langue empreint d'aphorismes, d'adages, de proverbes spectaculairement traduits en franais, de petit ngreet de geste de conteur rompu que le romancier Ivoirien nous livre avec Allah n'est pas oblig, l'histoire hallucinante et abracadabrantesque d'un massacre dont les enfants sont les hros,les tristes hros la gchette facile ; ces enfants-guerriers des guerres civiles et tribales en Afrique dans la lutte sans merci que se livrent les seigneurs de guerre. Ds les premires lignes de ce texte pineux et dissonant, le lecteur se sent comme pris en chargeet s'abandonne la lecture du roman comme celle d'un classique. C'est une satire de la guerre, une satire qui saute pieds joints et raconte les scnes effroyables de torture, de viol et de massacre, la folie des chefs de guerre et la dmence des enfants soldats, travers le regard de marbre d'un enfant-soldat. Les journaux ont tout dit puisqu'il s'agit d'un sujet d'actualit : la guerre qui a sviau Liberia et qui n'est pas encore compltement teinte en Sierra Leone. Si tout ceci reste un ensemble de faits indniables, quelle est la part de fiction dans cette œuvre o les scnesde carnage, de cannibalisme et de viol se succdent un train d'enfer ? La part de fiction n'est que la manire de prsenterdes faits dj connus de tout le monde. Ce qu'il nous plairait de montrer dans cet article, c'est l'adaptation spectaculaire de l'actualiten œuvre d'art et le souci d'un crivain de montrer la bonne voie aux politiques gars dans les sentiers hontsdes richesses et privilges.

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In Early and Classical Latin, we encounter a rich and complex system in which prefixes are used to render verbs telic and to emphasise the beginning or end of a process or of an activity, and in which the opposition between non-dynamicity and dynamicity or between transitivity and intransitivity is expressed by various suffixes. In the perfect there is an opposition between non-dynamic unprefixed verbs and dynamic prefixed ones. In the later centuries this system breaks down, and there is a blurring of the semantic difference between the prefixed and unprefixed verbs and often also of that between the prefixes themselves. New verbs are formed to replace old verbs that have lost their old functions. These changes pervade the whole verbal system in Latin and affect the semantic relationship between the perfect and imperfect tenses. In Romance, the definite and indefinite articles express the functions previously expressed by the various actional forms.

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TYPOLOGY OF THE VULGAR LATIN VOWEL SYSTEM For the analysis of the vowel system, we take only the palatal and velar changes as these are the most significant classifiers among the vowel changes. There are three main territorial variants of how the Romance

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I LOS RELATIVOS-INTERROGATIVOS DE LUGAR: DEL LATÍN AL ROMANCE La lengua latina presentaba en su variedad clásica un paradigma bastante complejo de adverbios relativos-interrogativos de lugar, integrado por cuatro unidades que se diferenciaban

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