(labelled in this manner for the sake of simplicity: the institutional environments in Germany, France and the UK have many distinctive features), Chinese, Russian (Russia and most other post-Soviet countries) and so forth. The paper focuses on the research
Behaviour in Transitional Economy
. Rostov-upon-Don. (In Russian.) Russian Statistical Agency, various years.
Serova, E. — Shick, O. (2007): National Project “Development of Agri-Food Sector”.
replaced by activism, which is defined as an engagement in the Middle East, Central Asia, Africa and Russia. Until the early 2000s, security elite and deep-seated bureaucracy have dominated the Turkish foreign policy. In this respect, high politics
1 Introduction Ukraine has been in an international armed conflict with the Russian Federation since 2014. On 22 February 2014, Ukrainian Prime Minister Viktor Yanukovych was forced to leave the country after months of protests against his pro-Russian
This paper is a description of the socio-economic system which emerged in Russia as a result of the transformation to a capitalist economy. The main actors in this system are the so-called ‘clans’ including business people affiliated with state officials and sometimes with criminal groups. In the analysis of the context of the Russian transformation a detailed study deals with the internal structure of a clan, focusing on its five main constituents (leader or ‘chieftain’, ‘core’, skilled professionals, ordinary members, agents of influence). Within clan capitalism, mechanisms of clan coordination dominate, while market mechanism and bureaucratic coordination are relatively weaker. The main features of this system are a clan-state, providing the convertibility of resources that maintain favourable conditions for clan activities; post-Soviet monopolism that is basically of a non-market character; distortion of the aims of enterprise; institutionalisation of the shadow economy; and unprotected property rights. Now clan capitalism has turned to the stage of oligarch capitalism with Putin’s clan as the core of new Russian oligarchy.
Four new for science species, i.e. Caloplaca kedrovopadensis, Lecanora ussuriensis, Ochrolechia yurii, Oxneria ussuriensis (all from Russian Far East) are described, compared with closely related taxa, and illustrated. Micarea coreana is for the first time recorded from Russia.
Five species of lichenized ascomycetes are reported from high mountainous Dagestan. Acarospora laqueata, Lecania ochronigra and Protoparmelia placentiformis are new to Russia and the Caucasus (the last two). Anamylopsora pulcherrima is the first record of the genus and species for the North Caucasus. Buellia centralis is the first record for the Caucasus and second for Russia. Our records considerably extended information about geography and ecology of presented species especially the very rare species Buellia centralis, Lecania ochronigra and Protoparmelia placentiformis. The characteristic features of specimens with information of their morphology, anatomy, ecology and world distribution are given.