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Summary

The ceiling fresco of the tower-room in Sárvár Castle follows with a few iconographic and compositional changes the fresco of Daniel Gran (1730) in the main hall of the Hofbibliothek (at present Österreichische Nationalbibliothek) in Vienna. The frescoes, in a bad condition and restored in 1960, were held to be works by Stefan Dorffmeister form the end of the 1760s. Mainly on the basis of its compositional qualities, the frescoes in Sárvár show many ressenblances with works by Joseph Ignaz Mildorfer, made in the 1750s and 1760s for Hungarian patrons, among them the ceiling of the Chapel in the Esterházy Castle in Pápa (1758), the dome-fresco of the Chapel (1964) and the ceiling in the main hall (1766/67) of the Palacee of Eszterháza. The closest relationship can be observed with the painted decoration of the state room of the Forgách Castle in Gács (Halič, Slovakia, early 1760s). The frescoes in S Sárvár can be dated according to the relationships of the owners before 1759, when the Castle belonged to Count Georg Szluha and his wife, Rosalie Sinzendorf (whose mother was a Countess Draskovich). The subject of the painting as well as the choice of the painter could be the result of the Szluha connection with the imperial court and also by the fact that his wife was related to Count Antal Grassalkovich. The latter was in contact with architects at the imperial court (N. Pacassi, J. N. Jadot), working with Mildorfer. The iconography of the tower-room represents a mixture of traditional iconography of libraries and of sale terrene, so its function as a private closet, a kind of Baroque studiolo can be supposed.

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Abstract

Sárvár castle was the property of the Nádasdy family from the early 16th century until 1670. Its current pentagonal shape was formed during the time of judge royal Ferenc III Nádasdy, one of the leading art patrons of the 17th century. Its early 17th century state is documented by three inventories (1630, 1646, 1650), and the layout of the interior, the functions and furnishings of the rooms can be reconstructed from the inventory dated 1669. The paper suggests some new dates of construction, explicates the stucco and fresco ornamentation program and on the basis of the furnishing inquiries into the role and function of the castle turned residence during Ferenc Nádasdy's time.

Comparing the inventories of various dates, one finds that Nádasdy first had wing A reconstructed before 1646. Research puts to the mid-17th century the rest of the constructions: building of the C wing and chapel, linkage of gate tower and wing A. Archival sources put the reconstruction to 1650–51. The stateroom was created at that time on the ceiling of which Hans Rudolf Miller painted in 1653 a fresco series of town sieges during the 15-year war. The stuccowork by Andrea Bertinalli framing the frescoes is dated by the paper also to 1653, a different date from what research earlier suggested. The conception of the ceiling decoration was completed before Nádasdy left in early June 1653 for the coronation of Ferdinand IV in Regensburg. Thus the iconography of the frescoes is independent of the thematically similar battle-scene cycle (possibly in oil) seen on the way in Günzburg near Ulm, about which Pál Esterházy travelling with Nádasdy wrote in his diary. Nádasdy had the opportunity to see in Günzburg the now extinct 16 full-length portraits ordered by the previous owner of the castle Karl von Burgau upon the model of the Spanischer Saal in Ambras around 1600. That may have inspired him to have the 20 full-length portraits painted mentioned by the inventory of 1669 in one of the salons of Sárvár.

Contemporaneous with the reconstruction is the staircase beneath the tower, mentioned in an order to stucco artist Andrea Bartinalli in February 1657 in which Nádasdy ordered the plasterwork for the ceiling of the upstairs rooms of wings E and D and the corridor of wing E, as well as a dual coat of arms above the mantelpiece in a room in the E wing. The order reveals that the stucco of three rooms in wing D had been started and Bertinalli was to finish it. Payment reveals that Bertinalli had completed the bulk of the work by the end of 1657. It probably included the ceiling stucco of the corner room in wing D, the only one still extant today. The plaster decoration frames frescoes the themes of which are from Ovid's Metamorphoses. Ingeborg Schemper-Sparholz traced their engraved prototypes to Antonio Tempesta, but this could only be verified for the Narcissus scene. The Perseus and Andromeda story adopts Chrispijn de Passe's work via a mediating print, the models for the rest of the scenes are unknown. The joint interpretation of the fresco themes and the so-far unstudied iconography of the plasterwork could provide the key to the program of the entire ceiling. The stucco putti hold attributes of natural plenitude, fertility, while the Ovid scenes are about accepted love (Perseus and Andromeda, Jupiter and Callisto) or the rejection of love (Narcissus, Venus sends Amor to kindle desire in Pluto for Proserpina who rejects love). The ceiling decoration is the apology of love and female fertility in the corner room that was one of the rooms of the female suite after the mid-century reconstruction of the castle.

Practically nothing is known of the one-time art works in the castle. The inventories reflect numeric data, which reveal that by increasing the number of art works Nádasdy wished to create a representative image in the Sárvár rooms after the rebuilding. The definite functions and furnishing of the different wings are revealed by the May 1669 inventory taken a few months after the death of the count's wife Anna Júlia Esterházy. It shows therefore the state of the interior as it had evolved during one and a half decades' use after the reconstruction. The composition of the furnishing reveals that the described rooms did not serve for actual residence. Apart from the monotony and impersonal character of the description of the furniture the most conspicuous things are the absent objects, particularly in comparison with the description of the actual residence of the family, the castle of Pottendorf. This comparison reveals that in Sárvár pieces of storing furniture, first of all those for keeping clothes and textiles, are missing in Sárvár. There are only two cupboards but they are empty. There is no furniture to hold books, while in Pottendorf there was a Bibliotheca. In Sárvár, except for Nádasdy's bedroom and one of the women's rooms, the beds are not installed, and apart from Nádasdy's suite there are no curtains, draperies, and there is no mirror.

The inventory confirms the earlier research findings: Sárvár did not function as a residence, since before 1650 the family lived in Deutschkreuz, then in Seibersdorf in Lower Austria and from 1660 in Pottendorf. There are not many data about Nádasdy's stay in Sárvár in his itinerary either, which throws new light on the representative modernization of the castle and the need to create a new residence. Concerning functions, it is illumining to compare Sárvár with Deutschkreuz where the family is documented to have spent lengthier periods regularly in the second half of the 1650s with frequent guests. That is probably why around 1657 a two-level “Saalgebäude” of several rooms was built in Deutschkreuz. It must also be attributable to function that the Sárvár castle was representatively impersonal, “Prunkappartement”-like. There are few data to suggest what role the castle was assigned in the 1650s, but they tend to reveal that after the reconstruction and furnishing with art works Sárvár was to be the venue of ceremonial hospitality as the occasional protocol venue of Nádasdy's official matters in Hungary.

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Felkért hozzászólás

Dobos Endre, Vadnai Péter, Bertóti Réka Diána, Kovács Károly, Michéli Erika, Szegi Tamás, Fullajtar Emil, Penizek Vit és Switoniak Marcin: „Új WRB alapú validációs adatbázis és validációs módszertan Közép-Európára, ValiDat.DSM” című cikkéhez (Agrokémia és Talajtan 63. (2) 393–408)

Agrokémia és Talajtan
Author:
Gábor Illés
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Biologia Futura
Authors:
Zoltán Attila Köbölkuti
,
Klára Cseke
,
Attila Benke
,
Mátyás Báder
,
Attila Borovics
, and
Róbert Németh

established in Sárvár-Bajti (Hungary). From several individuals, wood tissue samples were taken by an increment borer. In some cases, samples originated from leaf material, selected from the former NAIK ERTI DNA collection base. The following poplar species

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Agrokémia és Talajtan
Authors:
Ernő Führer
,
György Czupy
,
Judit Kocsisné Antal
, and
Anikó Jagodics

Három klímajelző fafajú – egy bükkös, egy gyertyános–kocsányos tölgyes és egy cseres – faállományban végzett összehasonlító gyökérvizsgálatok eredményeit mutatja be a dolgozat. Az állományok talajtani és hidrológiai tulajdonságai többé-kevésbé megegyeznek. Klímájuk azonban különbözik, a bükkös a legnedvesebb, a cseres pedig a legszárazabb adottságú. A legfontosabb eredmények az alábbiak: – Az 50 mm-nél vastagabb gyökerek a talajba lefelé hatolva kizárólag a törzs alatt fordultak elő, a többi vastagsági csoportba (20–50, 5–20, 2–5 és 0–2 mm) tartozó gyökerek mennyisége viszont a törzstől távolodva fokozatosan csökkent. – Az egyes talajrétegekben (10–150 cm) lévő gyökerek összes tömege fölülről lefelé haladva fokozatosan csökkent. – A szívgyökérzettel rendelkező árnyéktűrő bükkösben a felső 30 cm-es rétegben a durva gyökerek (Ø>2 mm) aránya 66%, a fénykedvelő, karógyökérzetű csernél és kocsányos tölgyesnél pedig 50, ill. 45% volt. – Mindhárom ökoszisztémában a felső 100 cm-es talajrétegben elhelyezkedő gyökérzet tömege meghaladta az összes gyökértömeg 90%-át. – A fizikai talajféleség az egyes talajszintek finomgyökér-behálózottságát (Ø<2 mm) nagymértékben befolyásolta. – A finomgyökérzet és a hajtás (Ø<1 cm) tömegének aránya a legcsapadékosabb, azaz a legjobb vízellátottságú bükk esetében volt a legnagyobb (2,49), a kocsányos tölgynél 2,14, a legkedvezőtlenebb vízellátottságú csernél pedig 1,9 volt. – A föld alatti dendromassza aránya az egészhez (föld feletti és föld alatti dendromassza) faállományonként különböző volt: bükkösben 17%, a gyertyános–kocsányos tölgyesben 24%, a cseresben pedig 27%. – A kedvezőbb ökológiai, elsősorban klímaadottságok a szervesanyag-produkcióra pozitívan hatottak, mert a föld feletti dendromassza a jobb körülmények mellett abszolút értékben és arányában is nagyobb volt.

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und Struktur der bäuerlichen Siedlung. Berlin. Farkas Cs. 2005 Adatok Sárvár környékének kora középkorához (A Sárvár–Faképi-dűlő nevű lelőhely néhány IX. századi objektuma kapcsán) (Beiträge zur frühmittelalterlichen Umgebung

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We investigated the diversity pattern of nine Swiss stone pine (Pinus cembra L.) populations along the Carpathian range including the High Tatras, by using six chloroplast DNA microsatellites (cpSSR). Our aim was to detect genetically distinct regions by clustering of populations, and to tackle possible historical colonization routes. Our analysis referred to an investigated geographical range with the two most distant populations situated at about 500 air km. We found that the most diverse populations are situated at the two edges of the investigated part, in the Retezat Mts. (South Carpathians) and the High Tatras, and diversity decreases towards the populations of the Eastern Carpathians. Hierarchical clustering and NMDS revealed that the populations of the South Carpathians with the Tatras form a distinct cluster, significantly separated from those of the Eastern Carpathians. Moreover, based on the most variable chloroplast microsatellites, the four populations of the two range edges are not significantly different. Our results, supported also by palynological and late glacial macrofossil evidences, indicate refugial territories within the Retezat Mts. that conserved rich haplotype composition. From this refugial territory Pinus cembra might have colonized the Eastern Carpathians, and this was accompanied by a gradual decrease in population diversity. Populations of the High Tatras might have had the same role in the colonizing events of the Carpathians, as positive correlation was detected among populations lying from each other at a distance of 280 km, the maximum distance between neighbouring populations.

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The present research was undertaken to screen for field activity of ethyl-(E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester, PE), acetic acid (AA) and the blend of this two components (PEAA) at locations, where high diversity of microlepidopteran species was presumed. By tendency of relative catches, microlepidopterans captured could be divided into two groups: in the first group the PEAA blend resulted in higher catches than single components (Hedya nubiferana, Ypsolopha scabrella and Notocelia trimaculana), while in the second group (Archips rosana, A. xylosteana, Ptycholoma lecheana and Tortrix viridana) only the presence of AA was responsible for attractivity.

In all species, both male and female specimens were caught. This result indicates a potential way to optimise female-targeted lures based on PEAA or AA for all these microlepidopterans that are all recorded as pests. On the other hand, the capture of the above moths in the traps raises the need for some taxonomic knowledge in evaluating captures in PEAA-baited traps currently use in agricultural practice for codling moth monitoring.

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A káliumion-zavarok jelentősége a sürgősségi ellátásban

The importance of potassium ion disturbances in emergency care

Orvosi Hetilap
Authors:
Kitti Máté-Póhr
,
József Betlehem
,
Bálint Bánfai
,
Balázs Horváth
,
Norbert Dávid Bődi
, and
Emese Sánta

Bevezetés: A káliumzavarok előfordulása a sürgősségi osztályokon számottevő, ami jelentős morbiditással és mortalitással jár. Célkitűzés: A kutatás célja, hogy bemutassa a dyskalaemiák prevalenciáját hazai sürgősségi betegellátó osztályon, a kialakulás és a kezelés körülményeit, befolyásoló tényezőit. Módszer: Keresztmetszeti, retrospektív vizsgálatot végeztünk, anonim módon. A minta, nem véletlenszerű mintavételi módszert követően, a Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok Megyei Hetényi Géza Kórház-Rendelőintézet Sürgősségi Betegellátó Osztályán 2021. szeptember és december között jelentkező, hypo- (n1 = 130) vagy hyperkalaemiával (n2 = 70) diagnosztizált páciensekből állt (n = 200). A kapott adatokat leíró és matematikai statisztikai számításokkal (khi2-próba, kétmintás t-próba, ANOVA és korrelációanalízis) értékeltük ki, SPSS 22.0 szoftver segítségével (p<0,05). Eredmények: A hypokalaemia hajlamosító tényezői közé tartozott a női nem (p<0,001) és a magasvérnyomás-betegség (p = 0,04). A középsúlyos hypokalaemiás páciensek 60%-a diagnosztizált hypertoniás volt (p = 0,003). A hyperkalaemiás állapotokhoz az emelkedettebb vércukorértékek (p<0,001), a diabetes mellitus (p<0,001) és a krónikus vesebetegség volt köthető (p<0,001). Minél súlyosabb volt a káliumeltérés mértéke, annál nagyobb valószínűséggel voltak jelen kórjelző diagnosztikus EKG-eltérések, melyek hyperkalaemia esetén 48,6%-ban fordultak elő (p<0,001). A prezentációs panaszok tekintetében a fulladással jelentkezők esetében volt a legmagasabb a szérumkáliumszint (p<0,001). Az életmentő beavatkozásra szoruló betegek többsége súlyos hypokalaemiával bírt (p<0,001). A hyperkalaemia, illetve a hypokalaemia gyakran járt kórházi felvétellel, míg ritkábban halálozással. Következtetés: Mindenképpen hasznos lenne a dyskalaemiás állapotok kezelésére egységes irányelvek kidolgozása, amelyek nagymértékben növelhetik a betegbiztonságot, és megkönnyíthetik a klinikus döntési helyzetét kritikus szituációkban. Orv Hetil. 2024; 165(5): 183–191.

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Erő-Tóth 1994 Sárszentmihály, Sárpentele. (Szerk.) Erő Zoltán, Tóth Tamás. Sárszentmihály, Sárszentmihály, Önkormányzata, 1994. Szeibert 1926 Szeibert János: Sárvár monográfiája. Szombathely, Dunántúli

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