Apical stem culturing offers an alternative approach of manipulating cell sap for wheat grain carbon and nitrogen metabolism in a near in vivo conditions. Employing this technique, role of sucrose and glutamine in transport stream on sucrose metabolism, ammonia assimilation and aminotransferase activities were assessed towards starch and protein accumulation in two wheat genotypes PBW 343 (low yield) and PBW 621 (high yield). At mid-milky stage, detached tillers were cultured in complete liquid medium containing varied concentration of glutamine and sucrose for seven days during year 2012–13 and 2013–14. Increasing glutamine concentration from 17 to 25 mM in the culture medium having 117 mM sucrose enhanced activities of nitrate reductase, glutamate synthase, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) at 4 days after culturing (DAC) in correspondence with an increase in soluble protein content. However, at 7 DAC content of soluble protein decreased whereas starch accumulation increased showing, thereby a compensatory effect on carbon and nitrogen metabolism. Apparently, activities of sucrose synthase, soluble acid and neutral invertase significantly decreased. Increasing sucrose concentration from 117 to 125mMled to an increase in transformation of sugars to starch in grain but protein content decreased. PBW621 showed high protein content due to higher activities of GOT, GPT at 4 DAC which subsequently increased carbon skeleton of proteins towards starch synthesis at 7 DAC. Grain filling processes in terms of soluble sugars/starch were strongly correlated to invertase activities whereas proteins to aminotransferases.
Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) of Fabacecae family is widely distributed throughout the world and used as an old medicinal plant and traditional food. The present study deals with the investigation of the anti-genotoxic potential of methanol (MTG) and ethanol (ETG) extracted leaf sap of fenugreek on Allium cepa root tip cells, which were treated with cadmium sulfate (CdSO4). Three types of treatments were applied. First, roots were treated with different concentrations of methanolic and ethanolic extracts (0.1%, 0.5% and 1%) separately for 3 h each, followed by CdSO4 treatment (at 250 ppm, for 3 h). Second, roots were first treated with CdSO4 followed by extracts treatment. Third, root tips were treated with CdSO4 with extracts treatments at the same time. For controls, roots with CdSO4 (250 ppm) and distilled water served as positive and negative control, respectively. The results showed that the methanol and ethanol extracts of fenugreek modulated the genotoxic and clastogenic aberrations, which were induced by CdSO4. The protection activity of MTG (1%) was 50% in the first treatment, 70% in the second treatment and 82% in the third treatment and 61%, 68% and 88% of ETG (1%), respectively. DNA rearrangements were also observed by revealing new RAPD bands in the total DNS samples isolated from Allium roots after treatmenst.
Authors:A. V. Reunov, L. A. Lapshina, V. P. Nagorskaya, and S. N. Lega
When tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and potato virus X (PVX) preparations were mixed with the sap from the halo zone (HZ) tissues surrounding homologous virus-induced local lesions in Datura stramonium and Gomphrena globosa leaves, respectively, and the mixtures were incubated for 18 h at 37 °C, the virus particles underwent destruction. Under the electron microscope abnormal (swollen and “thin”) virions were observed in the incubated virus preparations negatively stained with phosphotungstic acid. Sometimes the TMV particles were “cut” across into fragments. Treatment of the virus preparations with the sap from the healthy leaves or HZ surrounding heterologous virus-induced local lesions may cause certain destructive changes of virus particles but to a far lesser extent than treatment with the sap from the homologous virus-induced HZ. Possible mechanisms of destruction of the virus particles are discussed.
incorporation of the Nigerian economy into the World Capitalist System, the
indigenous social structure was fundamentally restructured. This restructuring
was (and is still) affecting the family institution in its performance of the
most important task of youth socialization leading to cases of what have been
described as child abuse, urban violence, working children and, even, sexually
deteriorating/ transmitted infections as a result of irresponsible sexual
behavior among the youth. If the situation persists, what are the implications
for the future of the individual youth and the family? How can the transition
being experienced by the family be controlled to positively influence the
future of the youth and, by implication, the society as a whole? This paper
attempts to provide answers to these questions.
behavior of batteries using model. Super absorbent polymers (SAP) are compounds that absorb water and swell into many times their original size and weight. The substance name of SAP is sodium polpacrylate (PAA-Na) and the molecular formula is –[CH 2 –CH
Authors:Deokjong Lee, Kee Namkoong, Junghan Lee, Byung Ook Lee, and Young-Chul Jung
recruited. Participants were screened for excessive smartphone use with the Korean Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale (SAPS; Kim et al., 2012 ; Kim, Lee, Lee, Nam, & Chung, 2014 ). Subjects were classified as excessive smartphone users if their total
Authors:Christoph Randler, Lucia Wolfgang, Katharina Matt, Eda Demirhan, Mehmet Barış Horzum, and Şenol Beşoluk
add incremental validity. We carried out two studies, focusing on two different measures of smartphone addiction, the Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale ( SAPS ) and the Smartphone Addiction Scale ( SAS ). Two studies with two different scales