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The genus Fritillaria L. is one of the examples from the several unsolved taxonomic problems. The classical identification of plant depends on morphological characteristics. Therefore, it is difficult to determine the botanical origin of some plants. The goals of this study were to examine the taxonomic status of these 42 taxa of Fritillaria in Turkey by means of RAPD-PCR and seed protein analysis in addition to taxonomic interpretation of species. SDS-PAGE and RAPD-PCR techniques were used to help taxonomic interpretation of Fritillaria species. Dendrogram based on g enetic distances was calculated using the computer programmed PopGen. For the RAPD-PCR analysis, 40 random primers were tested in the amplification reactions with Fritillaria species. Only 9 of them gave consistently reproducible banding patterns. The analysis of seed proteins showed that all studied genotypes had a specific protein pattern except the species that were close to each other based on morphological data. In electrophoretic protein banding patterns a total of 22–30 protein bands were observed. The protein bands in the region between 116-66 kDa were almost similar in all the species tested. In addition to that, all the species of Fritillaria had two bands in common (just bigger than 25 kDa). F. acmopetala subsp. acmopetala and F. sororum are very close relatives according to morphological, RAPD and protein results. Therefore these two taxa can be considered as synonyms. F. zagrica , F. caucasica , F. baskilensis , F. armena and F. pinardii are grouped together. All these separate species treated as synonyms based on morphological and molecular data.

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High molecular weight (HMW-GS) and low molecular weight (LMW-GS) glutenin subunits play a significant role in bread making quality and extensibility, though they signify merely 10% and 40% of the entire seed storage proteins. For the estimation of bread quality on the basis of allelic difference in HMW-GS and LMW-GS at Glu-1 and 3 loci, wheat germplasm (77 genotypes) was collected from diverse agro-climatic regions of Pakistan and characterized by using sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Thirty distinct allelic arrangements were identified with a sum of thirteen Glu-1 alleles. Maximum frequency of allele 1 was found in twenty-nine genotypes at Glu-A1 locus while high proportion of subunit pairs 13 + 16 and 2 + 12 was detected in 33 and 32 genotypes at Glu-B1 as well as Glu-D1 locus, respectively. Few rare alleles were also separated out. The quality scores ranged from 4–10, however highest quality score of ten was more recurrent (36.36%). A good quality score of 8 and 6 were found in 32.47% as well as 19.48% of genotypes individually. In LMW-GS, seventeen diverse combinations of alleles with aggregate of ten Glu-3 alleles were detected. Glu-A3c and Glu-B3d alleles were observed in 33 (42.85%) genotypes, encoding high sedimentation and protein contents. Hence, this will enable the breeders to utilize both glutenin subunits as biochemical indicator for selecting superior wheat genotypes possessing enhanced bread making quality.

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One hundred and sixty Pakistani Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare accessions were analyzed for genetic diversity on the basis of hordein, seed storage proteins. In total we have analyzed 7 Hor-1, 12 Hor-2 and 5 Hor-3 alleles for three hordein loci in barley accessions on SDS-PAGE. Out of 24 polymorphic alleles, three rare alleles (Hor 3.1, Hor 2.1, Hor 1.1) were detected. Abundant genetic variability was observed in Pakistani barley accessions for hordein loci. Genetic similarities calculated for all pair wise comparisons of H. vulgare accessions were used to form 83 banding patterns that represent the core collections of Pakistan, which included 50 unique patterns. Multivariate analysis conducted to generate similarity matrix using Jaccard’s coefficient (Jaccard, 1908) to estimate relatedness and divergence among 160 accessions ranged from 0.11 to 1.00, representing high level of genetic variability. Clustering was carried out to determine genetic diversity among the core collections that clustered them into three major clusters. In this study genetic diversity for cultivated barley belonging to different regions of Pakistan were in the order of Punjab> Balochistan> Northern Area> Sindh> A.J.K.> N.W.F.P.

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Short arm of rye chromosome 1 (1RS) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) improvement is being widely utilized by many plant breeders. The 1BL.1RS translocation derived from the Russian wheat cultivar “Kavkaz”, carring genes for major wheat diseases such as stem, strip and leaf rusts and powdery mildew resistance. The 1AL.1RS translocation derived from “Amigo”, possessing resistance genes for stem rust, powdery mildew and greenbug. The distribution of the wheat-rye translocations 1BL.1RS and 1AL.1RS was studied in 44 Iranian wheat cultivars (29 bread wheat cultivars and 15 durum wheats). In this study the presence of the translocations was identified in 5 cultivars (Dez, Atrak, Rasul, Falat and Moghan3), using SDS-PAGE technique and 3 DNAmarkers based PCR. The both results of PCR based markers and SDS-PAGE showed that the frequency of the 1BL.1RS in Iranian bread wheat is very low (5 cultivars of bread wheat) and 1AL.1RS did not exist in Iranian wheat backgrounds. Such techniques are quick and reliable tools to recognize and to distinguish these two wheat-rye translocations in wheat genetic background.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: Gustavo Guadagnucci Fontanari, José Manuel Martins, Marcelo Kobelnik, Iêda Aparecida Pastre, José Alfredo Gomes Arêas, José Paschoal Batistuti, and Fernando Luis Fertonani

Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) SDS-PAGE was carried out on LSF protein isolates and ground lupin seed samples. The dried samples were dissolved in 0.2 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.5) at a final concentration

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628 641 Singh, N.K., Shepherd, K.W., Cornish, G.B. 1991. A simplified SDS-PAGE procedure for separating LMW sub-units of glutenin. J. Cereal Sci. 14 :203

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. 1994 19 19 29 Gupta, R.B., Shepherd, K.W. 1990. Two-step one-dimensional SDS-PAGE analysis of LMW subunits of glutelin

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Yan, Y., Hsam, S.L.K., Yu, J.Z., Jiang, Y., Zeller, F.J. 2003a. Allelic variation of the HMW glutenin subunits in Aegilops tauschii accessions detected by Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (SDS-PAGE), Acid Polyacrylamide Gel (A-PAGE) and Capillary

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29 Singh, N.K., Shepherd, K.W., Cornish, G.B. 1991. A simplified SDS-PAGE procedure for separating LMW-GS. J. Cereal Sci. 14 :203–208. Cornish

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The aim of the study was to compare the effect of pressure and microwave cooking on the in vitro protein digestibility of bean seeds (Phaseolus vulgaris) . The results of the in vitro digestibility ascertained the improvement of protein digestibility affected by pressure-cooking of seeds. The digestibility of proteins of microwave-cooked bean seeds was lower. The electrophoretic SDS-PAGE separation patterns of bean proteins hydrolysed with trypsin indicated a significant influence of both treatments on the proteins examined. Degradation of proteins was apparent, however, the dominant fraction of 47–41 kDa remained intact, which confirms its resistance to digestion.

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