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Plants exposed to stress undergo changes in their metabolism in order to adapt with the changes in their environment. Salt stress has been attributed to some physiological and biochemical alterations in plants. Proline accumulation relative water content (RWC) and super oxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme activity were analysed in a salt-sensitive (Lycopersicon esculentum) and salt-tolerant Lycopersicon pennellii), under different NaCl concentrations. The findings in our study showed that RWC and SOD activity decreased and proline level increased in salt-sensitive L. esculentum compared to L. pennellii. Proline level seems to be a criterion in the evaluation of plants salt tolerance. Increased SOD activity can be involved in defence the antioxidative stress.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: D. Filipović, J. Kasapović, S. Pejić, A. Nićiforović, S. B. Pajović, and M. B. Radojčić

Specific composition, protein profiles and total SOD activity were analysed in full milk samples obtained from five farms of the Milk Company IMPAZ. The effects of several laboratory treatments on milk proteins SDS-PAGE profiles and the respective SOD activity were also followed. The total SOD activity was detected in all full milk samples, and its values varied between 2 and 3 U mg-1 protein. The enzyme could be partially purified, up to »5 U mg-1 protein, by ethanol extraction. The recovered SOD activity in ethanol extract was proportional to the initial full milk SOD activity. The disruption of casein micelles by Ca2+ removal was followed by a significant decrease in SOD activity to 1.24-0.18 U mg-1 protein. The loss of enzyme activity was ascribed to the changes in milk milieu induced by dissociation of casein micelles.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Milan Došenović, Milena Radaković, Miloš Vučićević, Branislav Vejnović, Maja Vasiljević, Darko Marinković, and Zoran Stanimirović

minute. CAT activity was expressed in U/ml using molar extinction coefficient (43.6 M −1 cm −1 ). The estimation of SOD activity was based on the ability of SOD to inhibit autoxidation of epinephrine to adrenochrome ( Misra and Fridovich, 1972 ). The

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]. SOD activity was analyzed by the reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium by superoxide, which formed formazan and spectrometrically detected at 560 nm using Genesys 10 UV and expressed in terms of U/mL [ 16 ]. The level of gingival inflammation was

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Physiology International
Authors: N. Almási, Z. Murlasits, A. Al-awar, Á. Csonka, S. Dvorácskó, C. Tömböly, S. Török, D. Bester, A. Pósa, C. Varga, and K. Kupai

/well. Measurement of SOD activity in the colon The homogenization method described under ELISA was also used for SOD activity measurements. SOD activity was measured with a specific kit (Abcam, ab65354). Enzyme activity measurement in the colon samples was done

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors: Celestyna Mila-Kierzenkowska, Alina Woźniak, B. Woźniak, G. Drewa, Bogumiła Chęsy, T. Drewa, Ewa Krzyżyńska-Malinowska, and R. Ceraficki

In this study we examined superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) concentration in liver and muscles of four fish species: the carp, the brown trout, the white cod and the flounder. Higher SOD activity and higher TBARS concentration was revealed in the tissues of marine fish in comparison to freshwater fish. The highest SOD activity was observed in the cod while the highest TBARS concentration was in the flounder. The observed differences are probably an effect of the different living mode of the compared fish.

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The protective effect of a cytokinin benzyladenine (BA), against toxicity of paraquat (PQ), a widely used herbicide and a well-known oxidative stress inducer, was investigated in the leaves of maize. Maize leaves have been pretreated with BA at concentrations of 1, 10 and 100 µM and afterwards treated with PQ. At all concentrations tested, BA retarded PQ-induced decreases in chlorophyll, carotenoid and ascorbic acid contents. Pretreatment with 10 and 100 mM of BA significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity after 8 h of PQ treatment but there was no significant change in SOD activity in the leaves pretreated with BA at 12 and 24 h. However, peroxidase activity significantly increased in 100 µM of BA pretreated leaves. Results indicate that pretreatment with BA reduce PQ toxicity and BA-treated plants might become more tolerant against oxidative stress.

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The effects of diuron, a photosystem II inhibiting herbicide, on lipid peroxidation, photosynthetic pigments, soluble protein, proline contents and some antioxidant enzymes in maize leaves were studied and protective effects of polyamines against diuron toxicity were investigated. Diuron significantly increased lipid peroxidation, suggesting oxidative damage in the plants and proline content, while it decreased total chlorophyll, carotenoid and soluble protein levels in the leaves during the experiments. Pretreatment with polyamines statistically decreased lipid peroxidation induced by diuron and spermine (SPM) proved to be the most effective polyamine. Also, pretreatment with polyamines significantly prevented the losses of total chlorophyll, carotenoid and soluble protein induced by diuron. On the other hand, pretreatment with polyamines significantly increased proline contents of the leaves in comparison with the leaves treated with diuron. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities increased in the leaves treated with diuron while catalase (CAT ) activity decreased. Pretreatment with spermidine (SPD) did not change significantly SOD activity at 24 and 72 hrs of diuron treatment but prevented the increase in SOD activity induced by diuron at 48 h. However, pretreatment with SPD increased GPX activity at 24 h and GR activity at 48 and 72 hrs. CAT activity in the leaves pretreated with SPD was similar to that of the leaves treated with diuron. Pretreatment with SPM prevented the increase in SOD activity induced by diuron at 48 h but significantly increased it at 72 h of diuron treatment. However, pretreatment with SPM did not significantly change GPX and GR activities during the experiments but reversed the decrease in CAT activity induced by diuron at 72 h. Pretreatment with putrescine (PUT) prevented the increase in SOD activity induced by diuron at 48 and 72 hrs while it increased GPX and GR activities at 48 h of diuron treatment. Also, the decrease in CAT activity induced by diuron at 72 h was completely prevented by PUT. It can be concluded that pretreatment of maize leaves with polyamines reduced the damage produced by diuron and the protective effects of polyamines against diuron toxicity were closely associated with antioxidant system.

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The response of three wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars Banysoif 1 (C1), Sakha 68 (C2) and Seds 1 (C3) to salinity stress (−1.11 MPa NaCl) at germination and early seedling growth was investigated. According to the germination, dry weight production and tissue water content, C1 seemed to be more or less unaffected by salinity, whereas C3 was severely reduced and C2 was almost intermediated. Consequently, carbohydrate, protein and free amino acids contents were increased in C1 and C2, while the opposite occurred in C3 (except soluble proteins and free amino acids). On the other hand, while proline content decreased in C2 and C3, it markedly increased in C1 as a result of salinity stress. Na + /K + ratio was higher in C3 than in C1. C2 was intermediate. Significant increase in SOD activity was observed in seedlings of C1 and C2. On the other hand, SOD activity was markedly decreased in C3 cultivar. Seedling extracts exhibited three SOD activity bands (SOD1, SOD2 and SOD3) in C1 and C2. While in C3 seedling, only two SOD activity bands (SOD1 and SOD3) were identified, whereas the SOD2 isozyme was not expressed under control or NaCl conditions in this cultivar. Salinity stress significantly increased POD activity in C1 and C3, but it markedly decreased the activity of POD in C2. Two isozymes of POD (POD1 and POD2) were observed in all groups of C1. The intensity and density of POD1 and POD2 markedly increased under salinity stress versus control group. In C2, salinity stress resulted in disappearance of POD1 as compared with control group. In C3, salinity stress induced the appearance of POD1 which disappear under control group. CAT activity in C1 and C2 was markedly increased under NaCl salinity. On the other hand, CAT activity was markedly decreased in C3. NaCl salinity did not affect APX activity in three wheat cultivars. In addition, lipid peroxidation level of salt-sensitive C3 markedly increased, indicating more damage to membrane lipids due to −1.11 MPa NaCl. Lipid peroxidation did not change in the salt-tolerant C1 at the same concentration of NaCl. C2 was intermediate.These results suggest that at seedling stage, C1 is appeared to be more tolerant than C2 and C3 under salinity stress.

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The effect of increasing NaCl concentrations on biomass, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), ascorbic acid (ASC), proline and total thiol, and the activity of some antioxidant enzymes in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. cv. Gara-Yonjeh) were investigated. The dry weights of roots and shoots with increasing NaCl concentrations decreased progressively, and the strongest toxicity was detected at NaCl treatment of 200 mM. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the leaves increased gradually up to NaCl concentrations of 100, while the higher concentration of NaCl reduced SOD activity in both leaves and roots. The maximum levels of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity were increased at 150 mM and 100 mM NaCl in leaves and roots of Gara-Yonjeh, respectively. Peroxidase (POD) activity in roots of Gara-Yonjeh increased (82% at 200 mM) by salinity, while it decreased (43% at 200 mM) in leaves. In contrast, catalase (CAT) activitiy increased (84% at 200 mM) in leaves, and decreased (57% at 200 mM) in the roots of Gara-Yonjeh. Electrophoresis analysis suggested that different patterns in SOD, CAT and POD isoenzymes depend on NaCl concentrations, and the staining intensities of these isoforms are supported the results obtained from the spectrophotometric determinations. In POD and CAT, activity of isoform III was detected at all concentrations, by a “low-high-low” pattern, with the maximum activity at 50 mM of NaCl. Results imply that the function of antioxidant systems in higher NaCl concentration is responsible for the salt tolerance observed in Gara-Yonjeh.

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