The Second Military Survey of the Habsburg Empire (Franziszeische Landesaufnahme) was based on the first triangulation net of the Empire, ordered by Emperor Francis I in 1806. Eight horizontal control points were later used as projection centers for the different parts of the Empire. However, two provinces, mapped in the very early phase of the survey, have no real terrain objects as projection centers. In spite of the earlier literature items, mainly concerning the cadastral systems, the map sheet systems of the Second Military Survey of Tyrol and Salzburg do not follow the Soldner-Cassini projections centered at Innsbruck and Gusterberg, respectively. Indeed, the design of these sheets is similar to the one of the First Military Survey in cartographic point of view also with respect to their projection. The systems of the 1:28 800 sheets in these provinces are not centered at Vienna (St. Stephen) or Gusterberg as it was indicated in the literature. Projection analysis shows that for these provinces a unified sheet system was introduced. It can be connected to an Innsbruck-Pfarrturm-centered Cassini projection but the projection center is not at any distinct point (sheet center, corner or boundary halving point) of the sheet system. This Cassini projection, however, is not suitable for precise georeferencing of the sheets of Tyrol and Salzburg as it results errors up to one kilometer. The map sheets of these provinces can be rectified using quadratic formulae with remnant errors of maximum 220 meters (Tyrol) and 500 meters (Salzburg), which are much higher values than the fitting accuracy of the sheets in other parts of the Empire. According to the analysis, Liechtenstein is also without definite projection center but it is covered by only one extended sheet and its rectification can be done with an accuracy of 30 meters.
The Augsburg Painter Jörg Breu the Elder (cca 1475/80-1537) painted his first three retables 1500/02 in Austria for the Monasteries Zwettl and Melk as well as for the Monastery of the Carthusian Order in Aggsbach. Because of his vivid narrative style and the emotionally coloured rendering of the landscape he is considered as one of the founders of the so called Danube School besides of Lucas Cranach the Elder. Back to Augsburg, in October 1502, he got the right of a painter. There is a general hypothesis, that his journey went from Augsburg through Passau to Vienna and Krems, and that he was influenced by the works of Jan Polack in Munich, by them of Mair and Hans Wertinger in Fresing and Landshut. However, one can arrive to an other conclusion concerning his route, on the basis of influences which can be observed in the early retables by Breu, So, he could wander from Augsburg through Munich to Tyrol and from there to Salzburg and to Lower Austria. He might study on the site the retable of the Virgin of 1485/90 by a Tyrolean Master in the Premonstratensian Abbey Wilten near Innsbruck as well as the St. Wolfgang retable by Michael Pacher and the Altar of 1499 in Grossgmain, both in the Salzburg domain.
concert attendance about their concert experiences ( Bernhofer, 2016b ). The Schools@Concerts Salzburg Case In Salzburg (Austria) was one project selected, where a more than ten years established cooperation of the Mozarteum Foundation with different
In this paper, the construction of the “corona latina”decorated with a rich filigree work is considered as a terminus ante quem for the dating of its enamels. The art historical construction of a circle of filigree-decorated objects (royal sceptre, Salzburg cross, objects found in Székesfehérvár graves) and their dating from the late 12th century are here discussed. The author expresses his doubts on the homogeneity of the group. On the basis of parallels with western goldsmiths' works of the second half of the 11th century a similar date is proposed for the filigree work of the corona latina.
Virgil, the bishop of Salzburg of Irish origin (749–784) opened a new chapter in the history of his episcopate: he had the earliest works of the historiography of Salzburg compiled: the Gesta sancti Hrodberti confessoris, the Libellus Virgilii and the Liber confraternitatum; he had the Rupert Cathedral constructed, which was consecrated in 774; he extended the rights of the episcopate and that of the Saint Peter Monastery and he organised the mission among the Carantanians. This paper deals with three aspects of the activity of Virgil, the abbot and bishop of Salzburg: the conflict between Bonifacius and Virgil (I.); the determination of the date of Virgil’s ordaining (II.); and the debates for the goods and rights of the Saint Peter Monastery and the episcopate of Salzburg, which were noted down by Virgil in the Libellus Virgilii.(III.).
The cathedral “Esztergom II”. The construction of the St. Adalbert’s Cathedral in the twelfth century with an Excurse: To the chronology of the Early Gothic in the middle of the Kingdom as witneßsed by the Cistercian Abbey of Kerc (Cǎrţa, Kerz, RO), Transylvania. Among at least 4 construction periods of the medieval Cathedral (not counting additional buildings) the second building cannot be dated by written sources and is only witnessed by its High Romanesque and Early Gothic stone sculpture. As in the late seventeenth and in the eighteenth century stone elements from the ruins of the Cistercian Abbey of Pilis were used as building material in Esztergom and later also medieval stone sculptures from the region (mainly from the provostry in Dömös) entered in the collection of the Esztergom Castle. The distinction among these related monuments has in recent times also determined our concept of reconstruction of the Esztergom Cathedral. This reconstruction can be based on a few authentic landscapes, on a series of surveys drawn by military engineers and a description of the ruins before their final demolition. The early book by J. B. Máthes (1827) also contains a detailed ground plan of the St. Adalbert Church – a survey drawing from the early eighteenth century with possible traces of an ideal reconstruction. In recent times more efforts were spent to hypotheses concerning the building I of St. Adalbert’s than to the second construction, the ruins of which were still standing by the middle of the eighteenth century. It was a basilical building originally with an apse (rebuilt as a polygonal choir in the fourteenth century) between two towers in the East. The levels of the oriental part of the church are well documented: as the canons’ choir in the 3 east bays of the nave was elevated by 2 steps over the aisles, the choir square with the main apse was higher than the chorus minor. As the altar of the Virgin Mary in front of the choir was dedicated in 1156, the eastern parts of the building together with several parts of the nave can be dated about this time. The sculptures belonging to this building are classicizing (Corinthian and composite) capitals, partly with figurative elements, going back to figurative capitals from Dömös and related to classicizing details from the construction of the first half of the twelfth century of the royal priory in Óbuda. It seems that the capitals have belonged to a construction both with composed piers and with columns – perhaps in a form of alternation. The nave was not vaulted until the fourteenth century, but vaulting in choir and also in the aisles seems probable. The western part of the nave was built with cross-shaped piers observed by an eighteenth century witness of the ruins. Capitals with acanthus leaves and also with elements of chapiteaux à crochet appear as typical elements of this style also present in the inferior room of the annex to the donjon of the royal Palace, which was built presumably in the 1180’s. The role of North-Italian (magistri campionesi and also Antelami) models in the transmission of stylistic elements of French Early Gothic mixed with Italian traditions has received a strong accent mainly in the art-historical literature of the last decades. The author indicates a very strong analogy of this orientation in Esztergom with the late twelfth century reconstruction of the Salzburg Cathedral of Archbishop Konrad III, the crypt of which was dedicated in 1219. The use of local red marbles – together with the polychromy of different stones – on a series of decorative works following the models of the Salzburg Cathedral in the first half of the thirteenth century is comparable to Esztergom. Recent research – supported both by analysis of sources, technical observations and also geological investigation – have proved that large surfaces of the Esztergom Cathedral were covered with red limestone plates, for obtaining a noble effect. The supposed chronology of Esztergom can be supported by a new chronology of the Transylvanian Cistercian Abbey of Kerc, where the earliest parts of the building seem to correspond to models in Esztergom and Pilisszentkereszt about the hypothetical foundation year 1202. The relationship of this workshop to the central region of the country found its continuation about 1220 as on Kerc monastery appear influences of later works of the same circle (Óbuda, royal palace, cathedral Kalocsa II) and elements of the South German Early Gothic (Magdeburg, Walkenried, Maulbronn) as well. The parish church in Szászsebes (Mühlbach, Sebeş, RO) can be considered as a parallel to Kerc Abbey. Among local followers of Kerc, in Brassó (St. Barthelemys’ Kronstadt, Braş ov, RO), and Halmágy (Holmwegen, Halmăgiu, RO) can be identified decorative and also figurative forms originating from Salzburg, maybe through the intermediary of Kalocsa. It seems, that up to the first third of the thirteenth century the model of Kerc is still valid for provincialized followers as Prázsmár (Tartlau, Prejmer, RO) and Szék (Sic, RO). The latest phase of its influence shows a modernisation following the cathedral of Gyulafehérvár (Weiβenburg, Karlsstadt, Alba Iulia, RO).
, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Ms. Lat. 18014, f. 67r; uo. Ms. Fr. 13091, f. 13v.
Például a cseh művészetből is táplálkozó, egykor a bajorországi Pähl Szent Lőrinc-templomából származó oltár (Salzburg, 1400 körül
Landesausstellung des Freistaates Bayern und des Landes Salzburg Rosenheim/Bayern, Mattsee/Salzburg 19. Mai bis 6. November 1988. Hrsg. von H. Dannheimer— H. Dopsch. Salzburg 1988, 328–341.
2003 = V. Bierbrauer