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This paper explores Arnold Schoenberg’s curious ambivalence towards Haydn. Schoenberg recognized Haydn as an important figure in the German serious music tradition, but never closely examined or clearly articulated Haydn’s influence and import on his own musical style and ethos, as he did with many other major composers. This paper argues that Schoenberg failed to explicitly recognize Haydn as a major influence because he saw Haydn as he saw himself, namely as a somewhat ungainly, paradoxical figure, with one foot in the past and one in the future. In his voluminous writings on music, Haydn is mentioned by Schoenberg far less frequently than Bach, Mozart, or Beethoven, and his music appears rarely as examples in Schoenberg’s theoretical texts. When Schoenberg does talk about Haydn’s music, he invokes — with tacit negativity — its accessibility, counterpoising it with more recondite music, such as Beethoven’s, or his own. On the other hand, Schoenberg also praises Haydn for his complex, irregular phrasing and harmonic exploration. Haydn thus appears in Schoenberg’s writings as a figure invested with ambivalence: a key member of the First Viennese triumvirate, but at the same time he is curiously phantasmal, and is accorded a peripheral place in Schoenberg’s version of the canon and his own musical genealogy.

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This study demonstrates that Hanns Eisler's serial music composed in the early 1920s and his cantatas created in the 1930s are interrelated with Arnold Schoenberg's serial music. The specific purpose is to reveal the musical interactions between the two composers, such as how Eisler was influenced by Schoenberg, and how Eisler himself influenced Schoenberg. The former aspect is highlighted by the analysis of Schoenberg's Suite für Klavier (1923) and Eisler's Zweite Sonate für Klavier (1925). The latter is shown while Eisler's Deutsche Symphonie from the 1930s and Schoenberg's A Survivor from Warsaw (1947) are subjected to a comparative analysis. Eisler was not simply a pupil who renounced Schoenberg's teachings, but a “true disciple” who succeeded Schoenberg's serial technique in a manner comparable to that of Webern and Berg and who, in addition, was a musical companion of Schoenberg, influencing Schoenberg's later music.

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The years between 1908 and 1913 brought about a radical change in Arnold Schoenberg’s manner of composition with the transition to atonality and aphoristic style. It was no longer the carefully planned work of art, developed through sketches and drafts, but the spontaneous musical idea that became the leading maxim for him. Works like the Piano pieces op. 11 and 19, the Orchestral pieces op. 16, the monodrama Erwartung op. 17 or Pierrot lunaire op. 21 were indeed realised without longer sketches. However, from 1912 on Schoenberg entered a crisis which delayed the completion of Die glückliche Hand for several years, and which at the end made the turning away from this manner of musical thinking inevitable. In spite of the primacy of the first idea emphasized by Schoenberg, works were ever so often changed in the process of elaboration and printing. The paper will try to systemize such alterations, and evaluate their relevance for their edition. The example of String Quartet op. 3 (1910) will demonstrate the working method of Alban Berg, in which sketches and drafts have always played a significant role. Thus, the typical working method of both composers will be illustrated.

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Abstract

During a tour of Austria-Hungary in December 1910, Debussy met a young Hungarian Francophile composer, Géza Vilmos Zágon (1889–1918). The latter sent him the manuscript of the Pierrot lunaire, a cycle of six melodies from the collection of the Belgian poet Albert Giraud. Debussy reviews the vocal line, emphasizing that the corrections he has made almost all concern “prosodic accents.” This rereading of a work by a young composer is a unique case for Debussy and testifies not only to his openness to young composers, but also to his interest in Giraud's poems, as André Schaeffner had so rightly anticipated in 1953 in his article “Variations Schoenberg.” It also reveals Debussy's deep sensitivity to the French language verse and rhythm.

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Abstract  

We introduce the concept of the statistical limit (at ∞) of a measurable function in several variables and recall the concept of the statistical convergence of a multiple sequence. Then we extend a classical theorem of Schoenberg (which characterizes statistical convergence) from single to multiple sequences, and prove an analogous theorem on statistical limit. These theorems even may be extended to vector-valued sequences or functions, respectively.

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At the heart of Carl Dahlhaus’s historiographic interests, according to James Hepokoski, was an “effort to keep the Austro-German canon from Beethoven to Schoenberg free from aggressively sociopolitical interpretations.” But Dahlhaus did not stop at Schoenberg: he also wrote about postwar music, and one might therefore wonder whether his “Austro-German canon” of autonomous music extended past 1945. In his essays on this period, Dahlhaus claimed that the postwar musical avant-garde was defined by the concept of the experiment, a concept that was, he believed, “nothing less than the fundamental aesthetic paradigm of serial and post-serial music.” He maintained this view from the 1960s through the 1980s, and thereby placed the concept of the experiment at the center of his historiography of postwar music. My paper shows that the concept of the experiment, as defined by Dahlhaus, has a uniquely German pedigree, one that is not at odds with his wider historiographic interests. By making the concept of the experiment central to his account of postwar music, Dahlhaus was thereby able to extend his historiography beyond the canon that ran from Beethoven to Schoenberg and include also later composers. In so doing, he lent the supposedly “international” postwar avant-garde a character that seems specifically German.

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This essay tackles some aspects related to the attitude of the Romanian officials after George Enescu left his country definitively (in 1946). For example, recent research through the archives of the former secret police shows that Enescu was under the close supervision of Securitate during his last years in Paris. Enescu did not generate a compositional school during his lifetime, like for instance Arnold Schoenberg did. His contemporaries admired him, but each followed their own path and had to adapt differently to an inter-war, then to a post-war, Communist Romania. I will therefore sketch the approach of younger composers in relation to Enescu (after 1955): some of them attempted to complete unfinished manuscripts; others were influenced by ideas of Enescu's music. The posthumous reception of Enescu means also an intense debate in the Romanian milieu about his “national” and “universal” output.

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Abstract

Recent studies of formal structure in themes in the Classical repertoire (William Caplin) as well as the music of Wagner (Matthew BaileyShea) point towards the enormous importance and potential of the Sentence phrase structure with its hybrid forms for analyzing tonal music. Initially described by Schoenberg, a Sentence is phrase consisting two main events of equal length, a presentation phrase (consisting of one repeated basic idea) and a continuation phrase. In this paper I will demonstrate Bartók's dependence upon Classical and Romantic phrase structures, including the Sentence, and also the Classical Period (consisting of an antecedent and consequent phrase). In both his small-and large-scale works, Bartók's sentences display a Classical coherence, despite the lack of a functional harmonic framework, due to their clear formal articulation and clearly defined modal pitch centers. Bartók also utilized chains of Sentences, Satzketten, in several works including Concerto for Orchestra. I will describe the different paradigmatic types utilized by Bartók in works such as Divertimento, the String Quartets, along with the Violin and Piano Concertos. Particularly significant is how Bartók alters the repeated basic idea and elaborates the continuation phrase and the creation of compound forms.

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