‘Bear Dance’ (German ‘Bärentanz’) appears to have been a lesser-known nineteenth-century character piece exemplified by Schumann’s two related compositions in A minor,
Twelve Pieces for Four Hands
, op. 85, no. 2 and its early version, for piano solo, composed for the
Album for the Young
but left unpublished, as well as Mendelssohn’s F-major occasional piece. These pieces are all characterized by a very low ostinato-like tone-repetition in the base (recalling the clumsy movements of the bear in Schumann’s pieces while imitating the leader’s drumming in Mendelssohn’s) and a melody in high register in imitation of the leader’s pipe tune. Bartók must have had this particular genre in mind when composing his closing piece for the
Ten Easy Piano Pieces
(1908), herald of later fast ‘ostinato’ movements, in which the amusing topic, a market place event, is turned into something wild and eerie. The composition and publication history of the piece is reinvestigated on the basis of documents, letters and compositional manuscripts, partly unpublished so far. ‘Bear Dance’ is closely related to the compositions, such as
nos. 13 and 14, resulting from the composer’s personal crisis in 1908, due to his unrequited love to the violinist Stefi Geyer, and it also uses a version of the leitmotiv generally named after Geyer by theorists. The employment of characteristics derived from folk music (
[herdsman’s dance] or
rhythm, strophic structure, etc.) is analyzed as well as the composer’s modernist preference for harmonies integrating minor second/major seventh clash and large-scale tritonal tensions. Bartók’s encounter with a special (but distinctly different) musical type accompanying ritual peasant dances in Romanian villages of Transylvania is also briefly discussed as one of his arrangements of a violin piece, the second movement of the Sonatina for piano (1915) was also entitled as ‘Bear Dance’.
Clara Schumann gave her first Pest concerts in February 1856. A survey of the enthusiastic reviews reveals that she was received as the foremost representative of “classic art,” whose performances gave the Hungarian public—until then mostly admiring exhibitionist virtuosos—an entirely new idea about what music was capable of. The moral superiority of Clara seemed also confirmed by her generous donation to the future National Conservatory, which was initially commented on in the most flattering terms in the press. In early March, however, the Pester Lloyd aired that the generous donation may not have been absolutely voluntary, an anonymous go-between having forcefully talked the pianist into financially supporting the institution. Induced by the recent discovery of Clara Schumann’s original deed of foundation (acquired in July 2011 by the Music Collection of the National Széchényi Library) this article seeks to reconstruct the story in some detail by rehearsing the press debate surrounding the donation, exploring the financial situation of the Music Society of Pest-Buda in the 1850s, scrutinizing the minutes of its board meetings, as well as comparing Clara Schumann’s contribution with those given by other traveling musicians.
The Schumann's sonata form (or sonata form-like) compositions little can be explained from the standpoint of tradition. Instead of classical dramatic contrasts, thematic action develops towards a definite goal. This type of musical narration often lasts to the end of the coda , in other cases the constant evolution of a thematic thought or the continual transformation of a motif receives the leading role. In order to obscure the essential events of the works or of the movements Schumann often employs “traditional” formal gestures. One of the most interesting is the repetition of a longer section in different keys, reminding of the exposition-recapitulation duality. The déjà vu feeling was generally one of the starting-point in Schumann's workshop to move away from traditional sonata procedures. Influenced by the narrative content of the works, various strategies were elaborated by him to excite the déjà vu, or to relive musical moments.
Wissenschaft 2/5 (1857), 315–316.
Bianca SCHUMANN, „Ein „deutscher‘ Franzose? Die Rezeption von Camille Saint-Saëns’ symphonischer Programmmusik im Wiener Pressediskurs (1876–1889),“ Ad Parnassum 17
The station for pions cancer therapy was operated at PSI from 1980 to 1992. After a cooling time of 12 years it’s made of
copper beam dump was cut and samples were taken for analytical purposes. The sampling collected about 500 g of high active
copper chips that can be used for separation of exotic radionuclides. The analyses by gamma spectrometry, LSC and AMS showed
main nuclides present to be 60Co, 54Mn, 22Na, 65Zn, 26Al, 53Mn, 59Ni, 63Ni, 55Fe and 60Fe and 44Ti with a daughter nuclide 44Sc. In the frame of ERAWAST project a procedure combining selective precipitation and ion exchange for the separation of the
rare radionuclides from the copper beam dump was developed. The proposed separation procedure is easy for remote controlled
implementation in a hot cell. The ion exchange separation of Ni, Al, Mg, Ti and Fe was complete and high decontamination factors
for copper and cobalt were achieved. Based on the developed procedure a remotely controlled system for separation of exotic
radionuclides from the copper chips was set up. The full scale system was installed in a hot cell where high activity levels
can be handled. In order to evaluate the reliability and functionality of the system extensive tests have been done. During
the test period 13.86 g in total of the proton irradiated copper beam dump were processed for separation of 26Al, 59Ni, 53Mn, 44Ti and 60Fe. The results showed that the system was operational and the radionuclide separation was selective with high chemical yield.
The procedure manages as well the generated liquid wastes containing high level of 60Co activity.
The type and amount of fatty acids uptaken by cells are of vital importance for health. In this study we investigated fatty acid uptake by cells in context with fatty acid supplementation. Due to cell incubation the concentration of fatty acids in the culture medium was dwindled, as expected. We observed that fatty acids prominent in the culture medium were diminished to a much greater extent than fatty acids contained in the medium in marginal amounts. The supplemented fatty acids were incorporated into the cells regardless of the type of fatty acid added. Beyond that, fatty acids from the n3 and the n6 family were metabolized, resulting in an increase of their desaturation and elongation products. The supplementation of the culture medium with a special fatty acid did not affect the incorporation rates of the remaining fatty acids contained in the culture medium. Thus, an increased supply of unsaturated fatty acids is not sufficient to lessen the uptake of saturated fatty acids by cells.
Authors:D. Schumann, A. Novgorodov, V. Khalkin, and R. Dreyer
The hydrolytic behavior of trace quantities of tetra- and pentavalent vanadium has been studied by the zone electrophoresis method in a wide pH range (2–12). For the first time, the mobilities of all hydrolytic vanadium forms were determined in dilute nitric acid solutions of ionic strength 0.1M at 298 K.
Authors:S. Milesz, M. Jovchev, D. Schumann, V. Khalkin, and M. Milanov
Using the electromigration method the monopositive astatine ion has been shown to form EDTA [H4L] complexes in 0.1M NaClO4 solution at pH=3–10. The ion mobility of the AtL3– complex is 5.60/23/x10–4 cm2.V–1.s–1.