The purpose of this study is to explore the character and pattern of the linkage between science and technology in China,
based on the database of United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). The analysis is focused on the period 1995–2004,
a rapid increasing period for Chinese US patents. Using the scientific non-patent references (NPRs) within patents, we investigate
the science-technology connection in the context of Chinese regions as well as industrial sectors classified by International
Patent Classification (IPC). 11 technological domains have been selected to describe the science intensity of the technology.
The results suggest that the patents and the corresponding scientific citations are related in different ways. Finally, we
match the scientific NPRs to the Science Citation Index (SCI) covered publications to identify the core journals and categories.
It reveals that the scientific references covered by SCI show a skewed distribution not only in journals but also in categories.
This article focuses on issues concerning science and technology relationships posed by the emergence of a new drug discovery method, namely, combinatorial chemistry and biology. We assess the scientific content of combinatorial chemistry and biology using citations in patents to scientific journals and compare this research platform with biotechnology. We also identify the institutional affiliation of all the authors of the cited papers, which leads us to an analysis of knowledge spillovers between the main participants in the research network. Finally, we examine the relevance of localisation in the process of knowledge exchange with regard to EU countries and the US. The result of the analysis provides evidence to support the view that the inventive capacity of a country is dependent upon the basic research which is carried out, especially in universities and public research centres located in the inventor's country.
Authors:Tom Magerman, Bart Van Looy, and Xiaoyan Song
In this study, we examine and validate the use of existing text mining techniques (based on the vector space model and latent
semantic indexing) to detect similarities between patent documents and scientific publications. Clearly, experts involved
in domain studies would benefit from techniques that allow similarity to be detected—and hence facilitate mapping, categorization
and classification efforts. In addition, given current debates on the relevance and appropriateness of academic patenting,
the ability to assess content-relatedness between sets of documents—in this case, patents and publications—might become relevant
and useful. We list several options available to arrive at content based similarity measures. Different options of a vector
space model and latent semantic indexing approach have been selected and applied to the publications and patents of a sample
of academic inventors (n = 6). We also validated the outcomes by using independently obtained validation scores of human raters. While we conclude
that text mining techniques can be valuable for detecting similarities between patents and publications, our findings also
indicate that the various options available to arrive at similarity measures vary considerably in terms of accuracy: some
generally accepted text mining options, like dimensionality reduction and LSA, do not yield the best results when working
with smaller document sets. Implications and directions for further research are discussed.
This paper gives an overview of quantitative approaches used to study the science/technology linkage. Our discussion is informed
by a number of theoretical approaches that have emerged over the past few years in the area of innovation studies emphasizing
the exchange of actors in innovation system and a shift in the division of labour between publicly funded basic research and
industrial development of technology. We review the more quantitative literature on efforts made to study such linkage phenomena,
to which theorizing in the science policy area has attributed great importance. We then introduce a typology of three approaches
to study the science/technology linkage - patent citation, industrial science, and university patenting. For each approach,
we shall discuss merits and possible disadvantages. In another step we illustrate them using results from studies of the Finnish
innovation system. Finally, we list key limitations of the informetric methods and point to possible hybrid approaches that
could remedy some of them.
This paper addresses the issue of how science-technology interaction can be measured in the knowledge-driven economy. More
specifically, it compares the patent citation indicator to another patent-based measure using data on a small European economy.
Patent citation patterns will be compared to researcher patents. Comparing the two indicators suggests different patterns
of science-technology linkage. An analysis of revealed technology contributions of academic inventors and a survey-based analysis
of technological collaboration and knowledge transfer point to a possible explanation. Furthermore the research presents evidence
that suggests technology sectors are related to different modes of collaboration in inventive processes amongst academics.
Patent citations to the research literature offer a way for identifying and comparing contributions of scientific and technical knowledge to technological development. This case study applies this approach through a series of analyses of citations to Dutch research papers listed on Dutch-invented and foreign patents granted in the US during the years 1987–1996.First, we examined the general validity and utility of these data as input for quantitative analyses of science-technology interactions. The findings provide new empirical evidence in support of the general view that these citations reflect genuine links between science and technology. The results of the various analyses reveal several important features of industrially relevant Dutch science: (1) the international scientific impact of research papers that are also highly cited by patents, (2) the marked rise in citations to Dutch papers on foreign-invented patents; (3) the large share of author-inventor self-citations in Dutch-invented patents; (4) the growing relevance of the life sciences, (5) an increase in the importance of scientific co-operation. We also find significant differences between industrial sectors as well as major contributions of large science-based multinational enterprises, such as Philips, in domestic science-technology linkages.The paper concludes by discussing general benefits and limitations of this bibliometric approach for macro-level analysis of science bases in advanced industrialised countries like the Netherlands.
Authors:Wolfgang Glänzel, Koenraad Debackere, and Martin Meyer
The US-EU race for world leadership in science and technology has become the favourite subject of recent studies. Studies
issued by the European Commission reported the increase of the European share in the world’s scientific production and announced
world leadership of the EU in scientific output at the end of the last century. In order to be able to monitor those types
of global changes, the present study is based on the 15-year period 1991–2005. A set of bibliometric and technometric indicators
is used to analyse activity and impact patterns in science and technology output. This set comprises publication output indicators
such as (1) the share in the world total, (2) subject-based publication profiles, (3) citation-based indicators like journal-and
subject-normalised mean citation rates, (4) international co-publications and their impact as well as (5) patent indicators
and publication-patent citation links (both directions). The evolution of national bibliometric profiles, ‘scientific weight’
and science-technology linkage patterns are discussed as well.
The authors show, using the mirror of science and technology indicators, that the triad model does no longer hold in the 21st century. China is challenging the leading sciento-economic powers and the time is approaching when this country will represent
the world’s second largest potential in science and technology. China and other emerging scientific nations like South Korea,
Taiwan, Brazil and Turkey are already changing the balance of power as measured by scientific production, as they are at least
in part responsible for the relative decline of the former triad.
Authors:Jia Zheng, Zhi-yun Zhao, Xu Zhang, Dar-zen Chen, Mu-hsuan Huang, Xiao-ping Lei, Ze-yu Zhang, Yun-hua Zhao, and Run-sheng Liu
science-technologylinkages by means of quantitative analysis on patents in China granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO).
In analysis of industrial and technological development, patent classification, which organizes
science-technologylinkage on the basis of patent citations (both directions).
The world publication output in the field of biotechnology has almost doubled since 1999 (cf. Fig. 1 ). By contrast, the number