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Authors: Renato X. Coutinho, Eliziane S. Dávila, Wendel M. dos Santos, João B. T. Rocha, Diogo O. G. Souza, Vanderlei Folmer and Robson L. Puntel

scientific production of about 8,000 to more than 17,500 documents from 1998–2007 in relation to the scientific world. Hermes-Lima et al. ( 2008 ) describes that the number of Latin American publications (in Pascal database) increased from 6,994 in 1990 to 17

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average annual rate of 2.5% and Brazilian papers grew 10.9% per year (Science and Engineering Indicators: 2010 ) In this study, we analyze past and present scientific production in Brazil and discuss several important

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period can be divided into four stages (Figs. 1 , 2 ). Fig. 1 The difference between domestic and foreign journals in scientific production Fig. 2

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Abstract  

This is an analysis of the scientific production of the Spanish research community compiled by the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) during the period 1983–1989 through indicators of publications (scientific output) that have been accepted, more and more frequently, as tools for decision-making. The percentages of the total number of articles per year are defined and the temporal evolution is shown of the orders of quality of the hypothetical journals that represent the whole production. A new indicator is used for comparisons between scientific subjects and thematic areas. Finally, mention is made of the spectacular growth of the Spanish scientific production in the period referred to, not only in quantity but also in quality through the indicators considered.

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Abstract  

The quantity and quality of scientific output of the topmost 50 countries in the four basic sciences (agricultural & biological sciences, chemistry, mathematics, and physics & astronomy) are studied in the period of the recent 12 years (1996–2007). In order to rank the countries, a novel two-dimensional method is proposed, which is inspired by the H-index and other methods based on quality and quantity measures. The countries data are represented in a “quantity–quality diagram”, and partitioned by a conventional statistical algorithm into three clusters, members of which are rather the same in all of the basic sciences. The results offer a new perspective on the global positions of countries with regards to their scientific output.

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Authors: Isabel Pe?a-Rey, Napoleón Pérez-Farinós and Pedro Marset Campos

Summary  

Tetrachloro-dibenzo-dioxins were declared as human carcinogenic substances in 1997.  Objective: to analyse the scientific production about tetrachloro-dibenzo-dioxins between 1976 and 2005. Solla Price and Bradford models were applied. Different aspects of papers were analysed. Impact factor of journals was studied. 3484 articles were found. The number of articles published each year is fitted to Solla Price model. It has been shown the scientific literature dispersion. Specialisation of some journals of Nucleus and 1st Bradford Zone has been shown.

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Abstract  

We show that scientific production can be described by two variables: rate of production (rate of publications) and career duration. For mathematical logicians, we show that the time pattern of production is random and Poisson distributed, contrary to the theory of cumulative advantage. We show that the exponential distribution provides excellent goodness-of-fit to rate of production and a reasonable fit to career duration. The good fits to these distributions can be explained naturally from the statistics of exceedances. Thus, more powerful statistical tests and a better theoretical foundation is obtained for rate of production and career duration than has been the case for Lotka's Law.

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Abstract  

Measurement of research activity still remains a controversial question. The use of the impact factor from the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) is quite widespread nowadays to carry out evaluations of all kinds; however, the calculation formula employed by ISI in order to construct its impact factors biases the results in favour of knowledge fields which are better represented in the sample, cite more in average and whose citations are concentrated in the early years of the articles. In the present work, we put forward a theoretical proposal regarding how aggregated normalization should be carried out with these biases, which allows comparing scientific production between fields, institutions and/or authors in a neutral manner. The technical complexity of such work, together with data limitations, lead us to propose some adjustments on the impact factor proposed by ISI which — although they do not completely solve the problem — reduce it and allow glimpsing the path towards more neutral evaluations. The proposal is empirically applied to three analysis levels: single journals, knowledge fields and the set of journals from the Journal Citation Report.

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Abstract  

Analysis of scientific production is made in the domains of vaccines for the period 1990–1995, including eight Iberian-American countries. To attain the results, different indicators were applied such as: collaboration rate, activity index and representation techniques, using a cluster analysis and multidimensional scaling. Similarities between countries are represented according to their activity index in the subject field. Results show a discontinuity in the scientific production over the years, where each country has a peculiar behavior.

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Abstract  

This paper presents a review of the principal studies conducted on scientific production in Brazil related to Public Health/Collective Health. Some of the findings highlighted in this study, show the progress of this area in terms of production of articles, doctorate theses, dissertations and publications.

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