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Introduction In the long history of scientific collaboration, the earliest documented collaborative scientific paper was published in 1665, which was attributed to Hooke, Oldenburg, Cassini, and Boyle (Beaver and Rosen 1978

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Abstract  

Scientific collaboration is growing in its importance; more so in Asian and African countries. This paper examines the scenario of science and scientific collaboration in South Africa which had passed through the colonial and apartheid regimes before it became a democracy in 1994. South African science under distinct political periods moved through some difficult periods but it did not badly affect the progress and direction of South African science. Science and scientific collaboration continued to grow under its major political phases amidst serious challenges. Despite internal conflict and boycott by the international scientific community, South Africa could move onto a stable and steady path of growth in science and collaboration under apartheid which is being carried on in the new South Africa. Collaborative research is encouraged at various levels of knowledge production and in science. The importance science and scientific development is gaining in today’s South Africa is remarkable.

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Studies in scientific collaboration

Part II. Scientific co-authorship, research productivity and visibility in the French scientific elite, 1799–1830

Scientometrics
Authors: D. de Beaver and R. Rosen

Abstract  

This essay investigates a number of the predictions of the theoretical view of scientific collaboration as a response to the professionalization of science: (1) that collaboration is most typically practiced by the scientific elite, or those who aspire to it, (2) that it increases individual research productivity, and (3) that it enhances the visibility of research to the larger scientific community. With respect to the first professionalized scientific community, that of Napolconic France, the study focusses on the research practices and careers of members of the Society of Arceuil, the Philomatic Society, and the First Class of the Institut, as they illustrate and confirm the accuracy of those predictions.

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Studies in scientific collaboration

Part I. The professional origins of scientific co-authorship

Scientometrics
Authors: D. Beaver and R. Rosen

Abstract  

From a historical and sociological perspective, this essay presents and develops the first comprehensive theory of scientific collaboration: collaborative scientific research, formally acknowledged by co-authorships of scientific papers, originated, developed, and continues to be practiced as a response to the professionalization of science. Following an overview of the origins and early history of collaboration in the 17th and 18th centuries, a study of the first professionalized scientific community, that of Napoleonic France, confirms that, as the theory predicts, collaboration is a typical research style associated with professionalization. In the early 19th century, virtually all joint research was performed by French scientists; collaborative research only appeared much later in England and Germany when they, too, underwent professionalization. That historical finding, which constitutes a puzzling anomaly for any other view of scientific teamwork, here conforms to theoretical expectation. Several other predictions of the theory are presented, to be taken-up in subsequent studies.

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within the scientific community. So we can say that scientific collaboration helps accelerate problem solving, stimulates creativity, and enhances interdisciplinarity, avoiding rigid intellectual insularity. It has also been suggested that the

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Abstract  

As scientific collaboration is a phenomenon that is becoming increasingly important, studies on scientific collaboration are numerous. Despite the proliferation of studies on various dimensions of collaboration, there is still a dearth of analyses on the effects, motives and modes of collaboration in the context of developing countries. Adopting Wallerstein’s world-system theory, this paper makes use of bibliometric data in an attempt to understand the pattern of collaboration that emerges between South Africa and Germany. The key argument is that we can expect the collaborative relationship between South Africa and Germany to be one that is shaped by a centre–periphery pattern. The analyses show that a theory of scientific collaboration building on the notion of marginality and centre–periphery can explain many facets of South African–German collaboration, where South Africa is a semi-peripheral region, a centre for the periphery, and a periphery for the centre.

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Abstract  

Geography, economic, socio-political and language are considered to be factors that effect the level of research collaboration. However, to-date no technique has been developed to isolate the effect of geographical proximity from the other factors. This paper presents a methodology for specifically examining geographical effects on intra-national scientific collaboration. An investigation of intra-national university-university collaboration in Canada, Australia and the United Kingdom using this technique demonstrates that research cooperation decreases exponentially with the distance separating the collaborative partners.

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economic development between areas may determine the patterns of scientific collaboration. According to this hypothesis, peripheral countries are willing to collaborate in order to gain access to resources, while core (centre) countries collaborate for the

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Introduction In recent years, there has been a sharp increase in the number of collaborations between scholars. An explanation for the rapid growth of international scientific collaboration has been provided by Luukkonen et al

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. GlÄnzel , W. De Lange , C. 1997 Modelling and measuring multilateral co-authorship in international scientific collaboration. Part II. A comparative study on the extent and change of international

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